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Information, a merchandise submitted to the rules of market

Media concentration in France

The publication of the report made by the Lancelot Commission in January with regard to media concentration in France had, as its first impact, the rise of shares prices of the great groups of the sector. The report concluded that the current state of concentration in the media sector is not a threat on pluralism, that there was not reason to be worried about the conclusions of the Commission which, on the other hand, considers that the media depend on the provisions of common law with regard to concentration.

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The publication of the report made by the Lancelot Commission in January with regard to media concentration in France had, as its first impact, the rise of shares prices of the great groups of the sector. The report concluded that the current state of concentration in the media sector is not a threat on pluralism, that there was not reason to be worried about the conclusions of the Commission which, on the other hand, considers that the media depend on the provisions of common law with regard to concentration. Therefore, information is, above all, a merchandise with important offers for the actors that share «the available time of the human brain» just to retake the words of the President and Director of TF1. At the most, the Commission suggests some special regulations inherent to the media.

In addition, it’s pointed out «that a largely deconcentrated market structure does not guarantee necessarily the pluralism of contents». Thus, the intense search of audience can lead to a uniformity of contents to adapt itself to the expectation of the public, and adds that «in those fields, the most intense competence is adapted to contents with great homogeneity.»

To guarantee the pluralism of contents, the editors refer to the «direct regulation of contents», especially by the action of the CSA (Audiovisual Council) with regard to the audiovisual sector. As to the press, the direct and indirect aid of the state to the written press (1.15 million Euros in 2004) would be an additional guarantee for pluralism, but, what are the criteria to get the aid? «The autonomy» of the editorial department and that of journalists would be guaranteed by the stipulations of the March 29, 1935 law which stipulates «the clause de cession» and the «consciousness clause» which allow them to «keep, within the editorial line, a relative distance with regard to the owners and, therefore, limit the risks of damaging the editorial pluralism in case of concentration of capital.»

However, to see the editorial line of a headline against the interests of the owner group and those of the advertisers which provide most of the capital seems to be unlikely. In fact, there’s a sort of self-censorship in the editorial departments that makes some themes to be ignored, others to be highlighted, or to «make up» the information to present it with a more acceptable presentation. These are practices that discredit the reference press, now in crisis, and the information, which has been turned into a mere product submitted to the rules of market.

The Commission, which in the present situation does not see a threat on pluralism, proposes however a number of measures mainly based on the audience and not on the capital. For the audiovisual sector, the maximum limit of audience was set in 37.5%, thus leaving a great margin of progression to TF1 which has, nowadays, about 30%, specially when this limit would only be related to the external growth and internal development would, therefore, exceed that level!

With regard to the written press, they advocate for the maintenance of the current regulations, that is, a maximum limit of 30% of the total spread including the free one. Apart from the great media empires that developed a multimedia strategy, to establish the three thirds/two thirds/one third rule is proposed. That is, to have a group involved in television, press and radio which, for example, had gotten the 37.5% for television could only expect the 2/3 in the written press and 1/3 of the set limit for radio (150 million of potential listeners!).

Therefore, the Commission opted in a deliberated way for considering information as a merchandise, by accepting the regulations of the common right with regard to concentration. The shareholders of the great media empires can be satisfied; in addition, the stock welcomed the publication of that report with important rise in its bonds. Citizens looking for information just have to check the numerous serious independent media in the Internet which present another form of journalism and information. Obviously, this matter is not included in the reform.

Links to the report

- Les problèmes de concentration dans le domaine des médias
Francia, Direction du développement des médias (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

1,6 Mb)

Culture

UNESCO science Report 2005
UNESCO (Html

GIF - 305 bytes
Html

)

Defence

- Early Results on Activations and the Earnings of Reservists _The Rand Corporation (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

243 Kb)

- Deployment, Stress, and Intention to Stay in the Military _The Rand Corporation (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

163 Kb)

- La condition militaire _Francia, Asamblea Nacional (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

480 Kb)

Human Rights and Governance Standards

- Libia: Words to Deeds
Human Rights Watch (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

597 Kb)

- Sudán: Imperatives for Immediate Change
Human Rights Watch (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

379 Kb)

- Allégations de détentions secrètes dans des États membres du Conseil de l’Europe
Asamblea Parlamentaria del Consejo Europeo (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

287 Kb)

- Nécessité d’une condamnation internationale des crimes des régimes communistes totalitaires
Asamblea Parlamentaria del Consejo Europeo (Html

GIF - 305 bytes
Html

)

- The Human Rights Watch World Report 2006
Human Rights Watch (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

2,5 Mb)

- Second Periodic Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Human Rights Situation in Sudan
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (Word

GIF - 210 bytes
Doc

340 Kb)

Economy

- L’intermédiation sur le marché du travail dans les pays du Maghreb : étude comparative entre l’Algérie, le Maroc et la Tunisie
International Labour Office (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

790 Kb)

- Les seniors et l’emploi en France
Francia, Conseil d’analyse économique (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

1 Mb)

- Global employment trends
International Labour Office (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

406 Kb)

Education

- Rapport annuel 2005 de l’Observatoire national de la sécurité des établissements scolaires et d’enseignement supérieur
Francia, Observatoire national de la sécurité des établissements scolaires et d’enseignement supérieur (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

2,2 Mb)

- L’apprentissage de la lecture à l’école primaire
Francia, Observatoire national de la lecture (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

162 Kb)

Environment

- Définition et implications du concept de voiture propre
Francia, Senado (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

5,8 Mb)

- Hazardous Waste: EPA Needs to Clarify the Types of Mercury Waste That Can Be Treated and Disposed of Using the Debris Regulations
Estados Unidos, The Government Accountability Office (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

2,8 Mb)

- In the Front Line: Shoreline Protection and other Ecosystem Services from Mangroves and Coral Reefs
United Nations Environnement Programme (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

1 Mb)

- EPA Should Strengthen Ongoing Efforts to Ensure That Consumers Are Protected from Lead Contamination
USA, The Government Accountability Office (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

1 Mb)

- L’Assemblée des syndicats sur le Travail et l’Environnement, guide
Assemblée des syndicats sur le Travail et l’Environnement (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

284 Kb)

- Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2005
Global Knowledge center on Crop Biotechnology (Html

GIF - 305 bytes
Html

)

Europe

- La fuerza de la indentidad
Fundación para el Análisis y los Estudios Sociales (PDF 446

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

Kb)

- Activities of the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies to the European Commission 2000 - 2005
The European Group on Ethics in Science and new tecnologies to the European comMission (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

3,9 Mb)

- Competition Law and Policy in the European Union
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

363 Kb)

- Informe Anual de la Comisión Europea 2006 sobre el Crecimiento y el Empleo
Comisión Europea (Html

GIF - 305 bytes
Html

)

- The new Lisbon Strategy - An estimation of the economic impact of reaching five Lisboa Targets
European Commission (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

515 Kb)

Energy/ Oil

- Mémorandum de la Francia pour une relance de la politique énergétique européenne dans une perspective de développement durable
Francia, Ministère de l’Économie, des Finances et de l’Industrie (Html

GIF - 305 bytes
Html

)

- European Barometer of Renewable Energies 2005
Observ’ER (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

709 Kb)

Nations

- Informe sobre modificaciones de la Constitución
España, Consejo de Estado (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

759 Kb)

Family/ Childhood

- La famille et les droits des enfants
Francia, Asamblea Nacional (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

1,4 Mb)

- Acción humanitaria de la UNICEF, informe de 2006
UNICEF (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

2 Mb)

Immigration

- Travaux de la commission d’enquête sur l’immigration
Francia, Senado (Html

GIF - 305 bytes
Html

)

- Comparaison internationale des politiques d’accueil des étudiants étrangers : Quelles finalités ? Quels moyens ?
Francia, Consejo Económico y Social (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

1,5 Mb)

Irak

- Report of the International Mission for Iraqi Elections
International Mission for Iraqi Elections(PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

42 Kb)

- Planning Post-conflict Reconstruction in Iraq, What Can We Learn?
The Rand Corporation (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

148 Kb)

- Sustainment of Army Forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom Battlefield Logistics and Effects on Operations
The Rand Corporation (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

1,6 Mb)

Media

- Targeting and Tragedy - 2005 IFJ Report on Media Casualties in the Field of Journalism and Newsgathering
International Federation of Journalists (Html

GIF - 305 bytes
Html

)

Palestine

- Can Hamas Be Tamed?
Foreign Affairs, Marzo/Abril 2006 (Html

GIF - 305 bytes
Html

)

- Enter Hamas: The Challenges of Political Integration
International Crisis Group (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

514 Kb)

Foreign Relations

- Les relations entre l’Europe et les États Unis
Francia, Asamblea Nacional (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

900 Kb)

- Relever les défis des opérations de paix : coopération et coordination
The Challenges Project (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

947 Kb)

Health

- Plan gouvernemental de prévention et de lutte « Pandémie grippale »
Francia, Institut de veille Sanitaire (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

740 Kb)

Social

- Internationally Recognised core labour standards in Malasia
International Confederation of Free trade Unions (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

158 Kb)

- La radioprotection des travailleurs
Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

526 Kb)

Society

- The Impact of Katrina: Race and Class in Storm-Damaged Neighborhoods
John R. Logan, Professor of Sociology, Brown University (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

7,8 Mb)

- Garde et réinsertion :La gestion des prisons
Francia, Cour des comptes (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

1 Mb)

Terrorism

- Combating Terrorism: Determining and Reporting Federal Funding Data
USA, The Government Accountability Office (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

2,4 Mb)

Transporte

- Réseau ferré de Francia au service du developpement durable
Réseau ferré de Francia (PDF

GIF - 302 bytes
Pdf

2,4 Mb)

 
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