The meeting was called to order at 10.05 a.m.
Letter dated 1 January 2013 from the
Permanent Representative of Pakistan
to the United Nations addressed to the
The President: I wish to warmly welcome the Secretary-General, the ministers of Security Council members and other representatives present in the Chamber. Their participation is an affirmation of the importance of the subject matter under discussion.
Under rule 37 of the Council’s provisional rules of procedure, I invite the representatives of Armenia, Bangladesh, Benin, Brazil, Chad, Chile, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Germany, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Japan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Montenegro, Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, the Philippines, Senegal, Slovakia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, the United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay and Zimbabwe to participate in this meeting.
Under rule 39 of the Council’s provisional rules of procedure, I invite His Excellency Mr. Thomas Mayr- Harting, Head of the Delegation of the European Union to the United Nations, to participate in this meeting.
The Security Council will now begin its consideration of the item on its agenda.
Members of the Council have before them document S/2013/27, which contains the text of a draft resolution prepared in the course of the Council’s prior consultations.
I wish to draw the attention of Council members to document S/2013/4, which contains a letter dated 1 January 2013 from the Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General, transmitting a concept paper on the item under consideration.
Pakistan has convened this special debate in view of the centrality of peacekeeping in the United Nations- led efforts for the maintenance of international peace and security. United Nations peacekeeping has an impressive record of achievements in many conflict and post-conflict situations. Indeed, Blue Helmets around the globe have become a symbol of the United Nations global quest for peace.
I hope that this meeting will enable us to have a comprehensive view of United Nations peacekeeping and its present and future role. Focus will also be on the increasing nexus and interlinkage between peacekeeping and peacebuilding that have characterized the United Nations success in this field in recent years. The overall objective is to bring our collective contribution to making peacekeeping even more effective and productive.
I now give the floor to the Secretary-General, His Excellency Mr. Ban Ki-moon.
The Secretary-General: We are honoured to have the Foreign Secretary of Pakistan here to preside over this important debate, and we thank you, Sir, for this initiative. Pakistan is the single largest troop contributor to United Nations peacekeeping. Its personnel are working courageously every day under the United Nations blue flag to bring peace to troubled areas.
This year marks the sixty-fifth anniversary of United Nations peacekeeping. Peacekeeping has come to be a flagship activity of the United Nations. Thanks to debates like this one, careful analysis and adjustments in our work, peacekeeping has kept pace with the times. Our operations today are more varied and more complex than ever, and whatever form it takes, multidimensional peacekeeping remains a highly cost-effective investment in progress towards lasting stability. No other international tool is as effective in combining political, security, rule of law and human rights efforts. And our missions are integrating their work with the development efforts of United Nations country teams.
The draft resolution before the Council today (S/2013/27) identifies the many contributions that United Nations missions make towards enhancing security and building sustainable peace. We continue to press for progress in the face of challenges. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and the Department of Field Support are working to further improve how we plan, manage and support our missions.
We count on the members of the Council and all Member States to support this effort. I call on them to contribute military and police personnel with the professional skills, training and integrity required to fully implement their mandates. I also call on Member States to provide the key military assets and enabling capabilities we need to operate in ever more challenging environments. When Member States show the will to make the right contributions at the right time, we can deploy more quickly and operate more effectively. And I repeat my standing appeal for more women to serve in our operations. I am a proud advocate of gender equality, and I want to usher in the day when our peacekeeping operations benefit from the full participation of women, especially in leadership positions.
We will conduct periodic reviews of our missions to ensure that we have the right mix of skills and capabilities to respond to evolving mandates and changing conditions on the ground. We are improving how we integrate our efforts across the United Nations system to maximize the collective impact of our missions and our country teams. DPKO and the United Nations Development Programme are coming together as the joint global focal point for police, justice and corrections. We are also improving the way we carry out transitions as missions draw down and ultimately close, as we did recently in Timor-Leste. We aim to deploy, work hard, fulfil the mandates that the Security Council entrusts to us, and leave behind strong structures to maintain lasting peace.
But we have to do more than integrate the work of the United Nations system; we have to coordinate with other international partners. In most cases, regional organizations, the World Bank, bilateral donors and countries of the region concerned play a major role. It is often far more difficult to ensure the coherence of this broader international support than to integrate our own United Nations work, but such coherence is critical. That is why we will continue supporting transition compacts and other efforts that align international support behind clear national priorities. I encourage the Council to work harder for greater coherence across the international community, including with advice from the Peacebuilding Commission.
Today’s draft resolution rightly emphasizes that national Governments have the primary responsibility for identifying peacebuilding priorities, in consultation with a broad cross-section of society. Inclusivity and institution-building are critical to preventing a relapse
into conflict. Peacekeeping missions play a vital role on both of these fronts. They promote national reconciliation. And peacekeeping missions help support national institution-building, as we are seeing in South Sudan, Liberia and Haiti.
We learned especially valuable lessons from Timor-Leste, where the political commitment of the Government and close collaboration between United Nations and the National Police were critical to success. In too many other cases, however, a lack of political will and sustained commitment to reform on the part of national leaders have undermined progress. Too often, international donors focus on training individuals while neglecting to build institutions.
Institutions responsible for ensuring security and rule of law must be strengthened. Otherwise, when the United Nations reduces its military and police presence, we risk jeopardizing the gains we have made. Host States are ultimately responsible for ensuring the protection of civilians, and effective national institutions are essential to this effort. Our national counterparts must take this obligation seriously, as peacekeeping operations can never act as their surrogate in protecting the civilians within their borders.
It is important to be honest and clear on this point. When national leaders and the international community allow these problems, the local population suffers. Council members bear a heavy responsibility to prevent this, including by engaging directly with host Governments.
I am confident that, together, we can build on more than two decades of success in multidimensional peacekeeping. I look forward to hearing Council members’ views on how to continue adapting this indispensable tool to better meet the needs of peoples suffering from the throes and aftermath of conflicts.
The President: I thank the Secretary-General for his statement.
I shall now make a statement in my capacity as Foreign Secretary of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
It is a great privilege for me to preside over today’s open debate. I thank the Secretary-General, His Excellency Mr. Ban Ki-moon, for his insightful briefing. We deeply admire his leadership on United Nations peacekeeping and his personal commitment to making United Nations peacekeeping operations efficient and effective.
Blue Helmets are recognized and respected all over the world. They symbolize the United Nations quest for regional and international peace, security and stability around the globe. They underline the collective will and endeavour of all Member States to make the world peaceful and stable.
United Nations peacekeeping has saved and protected tens of millions of lives around the globe. It helps shattered communities and neighbourhoods rebuild themselves. It replaces strife with harmony. Brave women and men in the peacekeeping missions have made tremendous sacrifices in the cause of peace. More than 3,000 peacekeepers have laid down their lives to save the world from the scourge of war. Today we collectively pay homage to them. Today we should all once again reiterate our commitment to their safety and security
We are grateful to the members of the Council for holding this debate on under the theme “United Nations peacekeeping: a multidimensional approach” during our presidency. We held wide-ranging consultations, including with the Secretariat, to ensure that all stakeholders were on board and all perspectives were reflected in the preparation of this debate and the draft resolution (S/2013/27) on a multidimensional approach to peacekeeping. I am glad that today we will adopt a draft resolution on this subject that has been sponsored by all 15 members of the Security Council, which will be the first comprehensive resolution on peacekeeping after more than 11 years. Our motivation to hold this debate and present the draft resolution is three-fold.
First, peacekeeping missions are the most effective tool in the hands of the United Nations to deal with conflicts.
Secondly, over the decades peacekeeping operations have evolved from traditional to multidimensional peacekeeping operations to better correspond to the requirements of different situations. Their growing capacity to build peace, in addition to their primary role of keeping peace, needs to be harnessed.
Thirdly, in the past 52 years Pakistan has demonstrated strong commitment to peacekeeping and has served in missions all around the world.
We are grateful to the members of the Council and to Member States for their warm response to our proposal.
With regard to the debate today and the draft resolution to be adopted by the Council later, I want to highlight seven aspects of a multidimensional approach to peacekeeping: first, early response in order to prevent conflict, address its root causes and stem a relapse into conflict; second, the nexus between peacekeeping and peacebuilding — early mission assessment and planning will ensure coherence and synergy; third, sound planning and coordination in mandating and deploying peacekeeping missions through consultations with all stakeholders, especially troop-contributing countries; fourth, professional excellence, demonstrated by ensuring the deployment of trained, committed and well-equipped peacekeepers; fifth, broader ownership of peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities by strengthening partnerships with national Governments, regional organizations and development actors; sixth, inclusive political dialogue for fostering national unity and reconciliation; and seventh, tailoring missions to local conditions within the general template.
Pakistan has been a proud participant in peacekeeping missions. Pakistan has been a leading military and police contributor to peacekeeping missions, from Latin America to Africa and from Europe to Asia. In more than five decades, we have had the honour of contributing approximately 145,000 troops and of serving in 41 missions in 23 countries. That has given our peacekeepers valuable experience in handling diverse and difficult conflict and post- conflict situations all over the world. One hundred and thirty-two of our peacekeepers have given their lives for peace. That is among the highest number of casualties suffered by Member States in the service of the United Nations.
Pakistan’s peacekeeping role is rooted in our abiding faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. Our participation in United Nations peacekeeping is underpinned by a national consensus and is an integral part of our foreign policy.
Pakistan is also host to one of the oldest United Nations peacekeeping missions, namely, the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan. That mission has played an important role in monitoring peace along the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir.
The complex and dynamic nature of contemporary conflicts demands change in the nature and scope of peacekeeping missions and a comprehensive and integrated approach to peacekeeping. Multidimensional peacekeeping missions are a manifestation of such an approach. Accordingly, intricate crises are increasingly seeing the deployment of multidimensional peacekeeping missions. In such situations, keeping peace is as imperative as building it. Such missions achieve the twin goals of peacekeeping and peacebuilding by preventing the recurrence of conflict, building local capacities for sustainable peace and creating space for development actors and financial institutions. The enhanced efficiency and cost-effectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping efforts are among the benefits of a multidimensional approach.
Success in Burundi, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste has demonstrated the value of multidimensional missions. Yet, there are situations where challenges are larger than the United Nations wherewithal. That calls for a more calibrated response.
Shared responsibility and partnerships underpin United Nations peacekeeping. It is a multilateral exercise under one United Nations flag.
Continued success in peacekeeping will be ensured by upholding the legitimacy bestowed on them by the Charter of the United Nations and the guiding principles of peacekeeping, that is, consent, impartiality and the non-use of force except in self-defence or defence of the mandate.
I am sure that our deliberations today will strengthen those partnerships and enrich the discourse for a robust response to the challenges of peace and security.
I now resume my functions as President of the Security Council.
I shall now give the floor to the members of the Council.
Mr. Kelly (Australia): I would like to thank you, Mr. President, for convening this debate. I also thank the Secretary-General for his comments.
Australia welcomes the evolution in the approach to peacekeeping over the past decade, which has seen a recognition of the complex, multidimensional issues that can be associated with such missions. That recognition has in turn led to a concerted international effort in providing the guidance, training and capabilities required to meet those challenges. Given that trend, it is timely that the Council set out the broad themes that will help direct our efforts in current and future missions.
The draft resolution (S/2013/27) we will adopt today serves the important purpose of not only identifying the broad range of military and civilian capabilities that are required for peacekeeping missions to achieve successful peacebuilding outcomes, but also of the need for the true integration of those efforts. That includes not only in the ways and means by which different mission components cooperate and coordinate on the ground, but in the critical planning and preparation phases. That has implications for the way that civilian and military actors conceive of each other and the roles they play. That includes those organizations that are not formally part of peacekeeping missions but play a critical role in moving situations towards stabilization and development by supporting short-and long-term economic issues, the rule of law, good governance and local capacity-building — including funds and programmes, international financial institutions, non-governmental organizations, bilateral donors and civil society.
In that respect we welcome the work within the Secretariat to enhance integrated mission planning and execution, including the establishment of integrated strategic frameworks and the clarification of roles and responsibilities. That is exemplified by the important step forward of designating the United Nations Development Programme and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as the joint global focal point for the rule of law. Australia is in the process of developing its own integrated approach to strategic frameworks and planning through the establishment of the Australian Civil Military Centre. We look forward to sharing experiences as we all strive to evolve towards true integration.
The draft resolution (S/2013/27) should provide those engaged in planning missions with a convenient list of considerations. As has been stressed, all missions have unique characteristics, but we have had sufficient experience to tell us that there are generic aspects that recur time and again in areas such as the establishment of public security, the management of the displaced, transitional justice, political transition, disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration, and security sector reform. Often, transitional justice will include the need to defuse tensions over land and property disputes and resource equity. Each situation is unique. The key, then, will be doing the necessary analysis to tailor responses to the cultural and specific context.
Acknowledging the relevance of such issues to a mission means that proper allowance can be made in the way a mission is structured and the capabilities provided. This can help avoid serious compromises to the standing of a mission. An example would be the failure to provide the logistic requirements to support proper management of detainees and the corrections sector, along with ensuring that due process issues are catered for.
Of course, all these types of activities must be guided by the fundamental principle of national ownership if they are to be sustainable in the long term. The ultimate aim of peacekeeping missions, as it is with development, is that they must constantly be focused on their own redundancy. Missions will often result in international capabilities being provided to address critical points of weakness. Such measures must not create dependency but be focused from the outset on the means by which transition to national capacity can be initiated and advanced.
In building national capacity, we have readily identified the need for inclusive and transparent political mechanisms and processes. We have increasingly also realized the imperative of evolving national institutions and good governance, which can minimize and, it is to be hoped, eliminate corruption. Nothing is more corrosive to the progress of peacebuilding. To ensure that this erosion does not eventuate and that international aid is deployed to maximum effect, missions must focus on supporting accountability measures from the outset.
Two areas that we believe are central to peacekeeping and peacebuilding are the protection of civilians and women, peace and security. The duty of peacekeepers to protect civilians — whether through direct activities, such as protecting against conflict- related sexual violence or working to build local capacities, such as through the training of the security sector — are central to the restoration of security and moving towards a healthy civil society. This is a central pillar of peacebuilding. We also know that peacebuilding processes involving the participation of women are more likely to succeed. Peacekeeping missions can play a strong role in fostering such participation, including through the work of gender advisers and role models.
Identifying these multidimensional challenges generates the requirement to provide the training and expertise to address them. We need to identify, recruit and deploy people who have the right skills. For example, in addressing security sector reform, military and police
trainers and mentors must be properly equipped for this role, including in aptitude for the context. Mechanisms such as standing and rostered capacities can support the rapid deployment of specialists to support early planning or to fill critical gaps. We welcome efforts to improve the deployment of civilians with the right skillsets — including, importantly, from the global South — through the civilian capacities initiative.
Predeployment and in-mission training are critical to ensuring that all components — military, police and civilian — understand what the others are doing in the field. We encourage ongoing efforts to develop and implement peacekeeping training in a coordinated and complementary manner. We as Member States, our training institutes and the Secretariat need to work together to achieve this.
Finally, as one who has worn the blue beret himself, I would like to conclude by paying tribute to the service of the dedicated men and women deployed on peace operations and to honour the sacrifice of those who have given their lives in this noble calling.
Mr. Kim Bong-hyun (Republic of Korea): It is my distinct honour and privilege to attend this open debate and to address one of the most important issues in the work of the Security Council. Today’s thematic debate, under the agenda item “United Nations peacekeeping: a multidimensional approach”, is timely and appropriate, since maintaining international peace and security nowadays requires more integrated and comprehensive approaches to peacekeeping, post- conflict peacebuilding, and development.
The Republic of Korea warmly welcomes you, Sir, in presiding over this meeting, and commends the leadership of the Government of Pakistan for organizing today’s open debate. My delegation also extends its high appreciation to the Secretary-General for his presence and informative briefing.
The scope of United Nations peacekeeping activities has continually expanded. The mandates of modern-day peacekeeping missions have become more diversified and multidimensional to meet the changing demands on the ground since the first mission in 1948. In this regard, I duly recognize the strengthened structure of United Nations peacekeeping operations under the initiative of Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.
My country, the Republic of Korea, experienced a devastating war between 1950 and 1953, and has developed from being the beneficiary of an early United Nations military intervention and the recipient of development assistance to being a contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations and a new donor of development cooperation with many developing countries. Out of this unique peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding process in my country, I would like to offer my own perspective on this issue. Our commitment to these operations is firm, and our goal of ensuring their relevance for the future is clear. To succeed, we must build an integrated framework that can encompass the changing realities of the conflict and post-conflict landscape.
We can identify important elements to be considered in making the integrated framework: fragile post- conflict situations, potential relapses into conflicts, and the international development cooperation mechanism. While peacekeeping mandates in the most traditional sense are still valid, the modern realm of United Nations peacekeeping activities should overlap with that of peacebuilding and development cooperation. It is therefore timely that the Security Council should take stock of the instruments of peacekeeping, clarify its multiple dimensions, and decide on its future.
Having said that, I would like to emphasize the following.
First, an international development cooperation mechanism should be considered and incorporated into multiple dimensions of peacekeeping operations. Peacekeeping operations can learn lessons from the principles and guidelines of the international development cooperation regime that has been developed and agreed upon by the United Nations funds and programmes, agencies and other development institutions. In particular, development cooperation strategies for fragile States, which are now being developed and applied to several States by the Development Cooperation Directorate of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, can be included in the planning process of peacekeeping operations. We encourage the Department of Peacekeeping Operations to closely cooperate with development actors when it drafts a peacekeeping operation plan for a specific country.
Secondly, before laying out specific mandates for a mission, the resources of the United Nations country team and civilian sector should be taken into account in order to properly determine the scope of a mission and the capacities it requires. The available expertise and capacities of other national and international partners,
including regional and subregional organizations, should also be taken into account. Doing so will help reduce potential duplication of work and ensure the continuity of peacekeeping, peacebuilding and the development of the host country. In short, the aim is to balance long-term goals with the short-term realities on the ground, harmonizing the two whenever possible.
Thirdly, the significance of national ownership cannot be overemphasized in sustaining peace, security and development. The Republic of Korea has learned the importance of national ownership through its own experience. Immediately after the war in 1953, the Korean people, with a strong sense of national ownership, worked hard to achieve security, peace and development with United Nations assistance, and have come a long way during the past half century. This is why we believe that the peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts of the United Nations should be designed to strengthen the sense of national ownership of the people affected by conflicts.
Fourthly, it is not practical to apply the same strategies to all missions. There is no one-size-fits-all set of peacebuilding priorities that is good for every peacekeeping mission. Tailored strategic assessment is crucial in configuring any peacekeeping mission. Their mandates should therefore be clear and feasible.
Fifthly, the protection of civilians, especially women and children, under imminent threat of physical violence must be taken into account in the early phases of mandate drafting and throughout the life cycle of United Nations peacekeeping missions.
Lastly, women must be included as active participants at every stage of peacebuilding, peace agreements and development programmes, including in decision-making roles. Women are essential partners in any peaceful society and contribute to the three pillars of sustainable peace, namely, economic recovery, social cohesion and political legitimacy.
Since joining the United Nations, in 1991, the Republic of Korea has participated in 19 missions. Recently, our engineering contingent in the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti was redeployed home after having successfully fulfilled its mandate of recovering and restoring national infrastructure following the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. In March we will dispatch another engineering unit to the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) to implement the mandate to build UNMISS’s capacities for early peacebuilding and reconstructing the horizontal infrastructure in South Sudan. One Korean infantry battalion with the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon has also successfully conducted its surveillance and civil-military operations since being deployed in 2007.
My delegation stands ready to continue our multifaceted contributions to the noble cause of peacekeeping and peacebuilding, with a view to a more secure and sustainable peace around the globe. The Security Council has made great strides in streamlining that process, and its momentum must continue. We look forward to working within the Council on multidimensional ways to make, keep and build peace.
Mr. DeLaurentis (United States of America): I would like to thank you, Foreign Secretary Jilani, for presiding over today’s important debate. I also thank the Secretary-General for his presentation. Pakistan has been one of the top contributors of uniformed personnel to United Nations peacekeeping operations in the post-Cold War era. The United States is grateful for its contributions to United Nations peacekeeping, and we are honoured to participate in this discussion under its leadership.
Peacekeeping is one of the most important activities undertaken by the United Nations. It has reduced the incidence of inter-and intra-State conflict around the globe. Many countries, from Namibia to El Salvador and from Mozambique to Timor-Leste, have transitioned from war to peace, thanks in no small measure to the assistance they received from multidimensional United Nations peacekeeping operations. Multidimensional United Nations peacekeeping has achieved many successes since the Security Council established the first such operation, more than 50 years ago, in the Congo. But United Nations peacekeeping must continue to evolve to remain relevant in the years to come. I would like to focus today on some features that the United States would like to see in new multidimensional peacekeeping operations, wherever they may be.
First is a diverse mix of troop and police contributors, drawn certainly from the regions concerned and from other regions as well. The universal character of United Nations peacekeeping missions is very important to its legitimacy. United Nations troops must have the right training and capabilities to be operationally effective. To those ends, the Council should be more engaged early on with the leadership of the Department of
Peacekeeping Operations and the Secretary-General on the force-generation strategy. Force generation is a political, not a technical, exercise, and must be treated as such.
Second, mission staffing strategies should rely on quality over quantity, especially with respect to leadership and civilian experts. To win a host population’s confidence, a United Nations mission must quickly deploy real expertise and skills that the host country does not itself possess. Ten world-class experts arriving at the outset of a mission are far better than 100 mediocre generalists trickling in over time. As multidimensional peacekeeping evolves, the SecretaryGeneral’s initiative on civilian capacity in the aftermath of conflict should be fully embraced. Improved staffing also means accelerating gender balance in missions and the broader inclusion of women in all mission tasks and units. We welcome the positive impact that all-female units have had in Liberia and Haiti, and now in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d’Ivoire, and we want to see women playing a greater role, in greater numbers, in activities and leadership across the spectrum of peacekeeping activities.
Third, more military police and civilian personnel should receive relevant guidance and training before arriving at theatres. The Secretariat has made strides in developing standards, training materials, specialized guidance and policies on issues ranging from the protection of civilians to gender and health. Those resources must be put to good use.
Fourth, mission leadership should prioritize cooperation throughout the mission. Peacekeeping operations have grown increasingly complex as they have been asked to tackle a host of interrelated challenges in order to address conflict. One of the strengths of the United Nations is that it can deploy a truly multidisciplinary response in a way that other actors cannot; but that is an asset only if the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, which requires deep and sustained intra-mission cooperation. Mission management should design orientation and training programmes together, and devise truly mission-wide strategies for key mandated tasks, such as the protection of civilians. Jointness must become routine and prioritized, from mission planning to tabletop exercises to staffing operations and mission analysis centres. United Nations peacekeeping missions and country teams, moreover, must work hand in hand, including in the design of quick-impact projects and other initiatives to help generate local goodwill.
Fifth, we would like to see the entire mission leadership — special representatives of the Secretary- General and their deputies, force commanders, police commissioners and directors of mission support — taking action to ensure adherence to the zero-tolerance policy for misconduct. That includes swiftly investigating allegations of sexual exploitation or abuse and repatriating offending units.
Sixth, we hope that troops, police and civilian personnel in United Nations missions will begin to receive world-class logistics and administrative support, while the support component’s physical footprint is light and cost-effective. That is the promise of the global field support strategy, and it must be realized for the sake of the operational effectiveness and fiscal responsibility of the United Nations.
Seventh, the special representatives of the Secretary-General should promote multidisciplinary cooperation, not only within the United Nations system but also among multilateral and bilateral assistance providers. We hope she — and I say “she” deliberately — will foster information-sharing among those actors and help forge a division of labour that builds on their comparative strengths.
Eighth, peacekeeping can succeed only if there is genuine peace to support. Peacekeeping missions can help stabilize and catalyse recovery in countries emerging from conflict, but the Security Council must do its part to ensure that the political settlement underlying the deployment of peacekeepers stays on track. The commitment of the political leaders of the host country to work with a mission is indispensable.
Last but not least, multidimensional United Nations peacekeeping missions need the respect and gratitude of the host nation. The steps I have just outlined can help in that regard, as would efforts by mission personnel to familiarize themselves with local language and culture and empathize with the local population. But sometimes respect can be won only when peacekeepers refuse to turn a blind eye to flagrant transgressions; when they demonstrate the will and wherewithal to use force to defend themselves and enforce their mandate; and when they tell the Security Council plainly what we need to know, even if it is difficult.
Fortunately, the next operation will not start from scratch. We have learned much in 50 years of
multidimensional peacekeeping, and we have the progress hard-earned by past and current operations to build upon.
Sir Mark Lyall Grant (United Kingdom): I thank you, Sir, for convening this morning’s open debate on United Nations peacekeeping. Pakistan’s outstanding contribution to United Nations peacekeeping over many years is appreciated by all Member States.
As our understanding of the relationship between security and development has strengthened, we have responded with increasingly complex mandates that demand more of our peacekeepers. In particular, we have come to recognize that peacekeepers can themselves be early peacebuilders. But to be effective, they require clarity from this Council about their roles and responsibilities, and they require the right equipment, training and support to fulfil their mandates.
Peacekeepers play three critical roles to support peacebuilding. First, they help Governments articulate their peacebuilding objectives, as in Liberia, where the United Nations Mission in Liberia has supported the Government in determining security and justice priorities in a national development strategy that itself forms the basis for international support.
Secondly, peacekeepers enable the wider peacebuilding community to work by providing a secure environment, such as in South Sudan, where peacekeepers are working to drive security to a local level to enable others to help others to extend State authority.
Thirdly, peacekeepers may implement peacebuilding tasks themselves, as in Côte d’Ivoire, where peacekeepers have demonstrated that disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) have to be a joint effort. The United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) may have the unique skills necessary to disarm and demobilize ex-combatants, but others must be involved from the outset in designing and implementing successful reintegration programmes.
Peacekeepers’ efforts to support peacebuilding are made vulnerable by two factors: first, a lack of political will and, secondly, a deficit in civilian expertise. The UNOCI DDR programme is limited by a lack of proactive political will, and the innovative strategy to extend State authority adopted by the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan has yet to be truly tested, in part because of a lack of civilian expertise.
The New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States, agreed upon by the Group of Seven Plus, is a commitment on the part of the international community to supporting peacebuilding in a coordinated and transparent manner. But it is also a firm political commitment on the part of some Members States to achieving sustainable development and peace. We support that demonstration of political will.
Since 2009, the Secretary-General has consistently identified the need for the United Nations to broaden and deepen the pool of civilian expertise for critical peacebuilding tasks, in particular drawing on capacities from the global South. But recent figures show that over 20 per cent of civilian rule of law posts in United Nations missions remain vacant. This shortfall is unacceptable and we must deal with it.
Specific innovations are being made. Women protection advisers will increasingly play a critical role in preventing further horrific incidences of sexual violence, in protecting vulnerable populations, and in promoting the participation of women in peace settlements and political life. My Foreign Minister is personally committed to supporting such endeavours, and we warmly welcome the Secretary-General’s call for greater representation of women in the prevention and resolution of armed conflict and in peacebuilding. We look forward to discussing his broader proposals for addressing a shortfall in civilian expertise in the General Assembly over the coming months.
As conditions change on the ground, peacekeeping missions will cede their initial comparative advantage on some tasks to other actors, and the system must respond accordingly. An integrated response is particularly important as peacekeeping missions draw down. To achieve successful transitions from peacekeeping missions, such as that in Timor-Leste, we need a well-coordinated United Nations system that plans strategically from the outset of a mission’s deployment. We look forward to seeing in the next few months the emerging policy in this area led by Under- Secretary-General Hervé Ladsous.
Today’s draft resolution (S/2013/27), the first of its kind on peacekeeping in more than 10 years, captures how we have reformed peacekeeping to meet the challenges of effective peacebuilding. It further underlines the importance of peacekeepers in containing, managing and resolving conflict in a manner coordinated with those that will ultimately
lead to longer-term reconstruction, rehabilitation and development, and ensure that national authorities are placed at the centre of those efforts. The United Kingdom is pleased to be a sponsor of the draft resolution.
I would like once again to thank Pakistan for this initiative, which recognizes how far we have come and demonstrates the Council’s continued commitment to peacekeeping as a means, not only to contain conflict, but also to build peace for all.
Mr. Rosenthal (Guatemala) (spoke in Spanish): We would like to welcome Mr. Jalil Abbas Jilani, Foreign Secretary of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Guatemala thanks Pakistan for his excellent preparation for today’s open debate and for the concept note prepared for the occasion (S/2013/4, annex). The concept note seeks to open the discussion on the topic of peacekeeping operations, one of the most important issues in the work carried out by the Organization. We believe that, after more than 10 years since the Security Council’s adoption of its last resolution on this specific topic, it is appropriate to analyse and discuss the subject in the light of recent developments and the status of such missions.
We also thank the Secretary-General for his briefing, and we note that Guatemala endorses the statement that will be made by the representative of Egypt on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Guatemala is a country that has benefitted from United Nations peacekeeping, especially in the areas of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, after the signing of our peace accords in late 1996. Subsequently, we begin to participate actively in peacekeeping operations as a troop-contributing country. In other words, our particular interest in the topic arises from our dual status as a beneficiary of and contributor to peacekeeping operations.
Since that time, we have seen the adaptation of peacekeeping operations to each of the changing and unique challenges emerging in the field. In that regard, multidimensional mandates have been adopted to allow many of those operations to implement key elements for achieving sustainable peace during their lifespan. We endorse that approach, as we believe that peacekeeping operations must in some cases be complemented by activities that contribute to achieving real improvements in the living conditions of the affected populations.
As a corollary, we believe that one of the fundamental issues for the proper execution of multidimensional operations is that they must have clear, achievable and verifiable mandates that are adapted to the particular situation of each case. For that reason, we consider it important that, in establishing and reviewing mandates, the Security Council take into account all the tools at its disposal, according to the needs of each case and situation. We also believe that in order to successfully implement the mandates, one must address the issue of the gaps that still exist in terms of capabilities, resources and training through greater coordination among the Security Council, the Secretariat and troop-contributing countries. Additionally, we believe that any periodic evaluation by the Secretariat of any peacekeeping operation must be shared with troop- contributing countries.
In all peacekeeping operations, each country brings a unique contribution. The particular contributions that each troop-contributing country can provide must be recognized and encouraged. Similarly, it is important to further improve the triangular cooperation between the Security Council, the Secretariat and troop- contributing countries in the decision-making process and during the implementation of mandates. That would include consultations on all aspects and in every stage of peacekeeping operations, particularly when it comes to adjusting mandates, periodic mission assessments and changes in the number of troops.
In our view, peacekeeping operations should not be seen as an outsourcing exercise whereby developed countries employ the troops of developing countries to carry out this difficult and dangerous task based on an estimate of cost per person. Among other things, that is offensive to all troop-contributing countries and for all those people who risk their lives for the purposes of the Organization. For Guatemala, these operations do not represent a paid service, but rather the fulfillment of an ideal — to participate under the banner of the United Nations in order to maintain international peace and security. Therefore, what motivates my country to participate in peacekeeping operations is the pride and professionalism of our armed forces, as well as a sense of commitment to the highest ideals of the United Nations. For those reasons, Guatemala will continue to provide peacekeeping operations with personnel with the highest standards of efficiency, competence and integrity.
Finally, we want to emphasize once again the importance and key role of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations as the only forum with the mandate to thoroughly review the entire question of United Nations peacekeeping operations in all its aspects. While we consider it appropriate and useful to discuss the topic of peacekeeping operations within the Security Council, we believe that the Council should not stumble into an exercise in micromanagement of specific aspects of those missions.
Mr. Menan (Togo) (spoke in French): At the outset, I would like to commend Pakistan for organizing this debate on the question of a multidimensional approach to United Nations peacekeeping operations. Your presence with us here in the Chamber, Secretary Jilani, to conduct today’s debate illustrates the interest that your country has always had in United Nations peacekeeping operations. I am also grateful to the Secretary-General for the very detailed presentation that he has just given to us on the item under consideration.
One of the major challenges that our world has always faced pertains to its ability to find speedy and sustainable solutions to crisis and conflict situations that emerge to threaten the stability of States and the well-being of their populations. Initially designed and, until recently, operating to maintain peace in countries in conflict, peacekeeping operations have gradually evolved in order to adapt to the political, social and economic environment of our time.
Now the evolution of United Nations peacekeeping missions is such that the organization, planning and execution of related operations are transcending the primary normative framework mentioned in Chapters VI, VII and VIII of the Charter of the United Nations. Peacekeeping missions, in their multidimensional design, now rely on a normative framework that brings together the relative provisions of the Charter and the international legal instruments for human rights and international humanitarian law, as well as of regional and subregional organizations.
The issue is no longer just peacekeeping, but also peacebuilding. The mandate of peacekeeping missions has thus evolved to include the development component, thereby making Blue Helmets artisans of peace and reconstruction.
The merit of today’s debate is that it highlights the multidimensional approach of peacekeeping operations and provides an opportunity to evaluate its effectiveness and to propose improvements. Rebuilding a country after conflict requires a number of competencies to act in areas as varied as those having to do with security, the rule of law, good governance, the restoration of institutions and infrastructure, justice reform and national capacity-building of the countries concerned.
The multidimensional approach of peacekeeping operations therefore shows the will of the United Nations to not limit its missions to achieving only security space, but also to achieving space for political, economic and human rights.
We are pleased to note that for a number of years now the multidimensional approach has been well integrated into peacekeeping missions, since the United Nations and its external partners have agreed to identifiy the activities that are part of peacebuilding.
In countries emerging from armed conflict, the array of actions to be carried out is quite vast, but the financial and logistical resources are often lacking. External support is therefore the sole hope for the country concerned, not only to re-establish security and build institutions, but also to resume political and economic activities, which are the very foundation of any State.
While recognizing the merits of a multidimensional approach in peacekeeping operations, my country believes that, given the specificity of causes and of the nature of conflicts, it would be desirable not to lose sight of the fact that there is not just one model for peacebuilding. Therefore, each mission will need to take into consideration the specific needs of the countries concerned through ongoing consultations with national authorities.
Given that the multidimensional approach involves simultaneously implementing a number of activities by different stakeholders intervening in their areas of specialization, the success of such activities requires integrated preparation of missions, the establishment of a strategic framework and mechanisms that will assist in coordinating them and in setting priorities. That type of work is primarily up to the United Nations, in collaboration with regional stakeholders and the countries concerned.
We are therefore pleased to see that missions have been given coordinating frameworks and coherence, which now will need to be regularly assessed and from which could come relevant recommendations. Along
the same lines, we must strengthen partnerships, not only among bodies of the United Nations but also between regional and subregional organizations and the international financial institutions. In that respect, Togo believes that the Peacebuilding Commission, given its importance, like the Peacebuilding Support Office and United Nations bodies, must be able to establish a partnership to avoid duplication of activities, achieve complementarity on the ground and provide an opportunity for the establishment of a model of sustained and sustainable development.
That is why my country has always supported the recommendations contained in the report of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations and believes that their implementation will help make more visible and more permanent the action of the United Nations by all partners on the ground. Also, we must note the increasingly important role to be played by political stakeholders, civil society and defence and security agencies, whose coordinated action will contribute to the success of a peacekeeping mission. To make a peacekeeping operation efficient, we need to focus on the involvement of all concerned stakeholders from the outset of the mission in order to keep them all equally informed and to make sure that the information is always shared.
Togo appreciate the efforts already made in terms of training and expertise before deployment on the ground, both for civilians and security forces. To assist those efforts and meet international standards in that area, a training centre for military and police was set up in Lomé in order to ensure their efficient deployment in peacekeeping operations. We would also like to note that, in order to optimize the chances for success in those actions on the ground, it is important to avoid any policy of exclusion in the implementation of those projects. We therefore particularly welcome the increasingly important place that the United Nations is granting to women as key stakeholders for the implementation of projects that assist in re-establishing peace and security. We believe that it is also vital to promote the role of ethnic minorities and the media in promoting sustainable peace.
To conclude, I would like to reiterate the urgent need to adopt clear mandates for peacekeeping operations that coherently highlight the goals to be achieved in the post-conflict period in order to ensure that the country emerging from a crisis or conflict will not relapse for lack of substantial international support.
The protection of civilians and human rights, as well as security sector reform and building the rule of law and good governance, should also be given pride of place in the reconstruction programmes identified by and with the participation of national political stakeholders.
However, it is undeniable that the mandates of peacekeeping operations can be executed only if missions have considerable means. In spite of the efforts made, financing remains today the Achilles heel of peacekeeping operations. The international community must therefore spare no effort to make the contributions necessary for ensuring the harmonious implementation of United Nations peacekeeping operations.
Mr. Li Baodong (China) (spoke in Chinese): China thanks Pakistan for its initiative in holding today’s open debate on peacekeeping operations. China welcomes the presence of Foreign Secretary Jalil Abbas Jilani in the Council and thanks him for presiding over today’s meeting. I also wish to thank Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon for his briefing.
Peacekeeping operations are an important means for the United Nations to maintain international peace and security. In the past six decades, they have played an irreplaceable role. To address the changing situation on the ground, the philosophy and practice of peacekeeping operations have been on the path of continuous reform and improvement. The mandates of peacekeeping operations are becoming increasingly diversified. The Security Council is now granting to some integrated peacekeeping operations the function of early-stage peacebuilding, which is an important feature in the development of United Nations peacekeeping operations. In recent years, in some post-conflict countries and regions, due to poor results in national reconciliation, security sector reform, economic recovery and rebuilding and other peacebuilding areas, the situation on the ground has experienced ups and downs and even regression into complications and turbulence. Properly addressing the relations between peacebuilding and peacekeeping is therefore very important. On the subject of how to ensure a smooth transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding and how to effectively bring into full play the multidimensional peacekeeping operations, I would like to make three comments.
First, peacekeeping and peacebuilding are closely related. When formulating the mandate of a
peacekeeping operation, priority attention must be given to the urgent need to consolidate and maintain peace. Meanwhile, it is important to have a long-term vision and to consider the reality on the ground so as to mandate the peacekeeping operation to undertake early-stage peacebuilding functions. Early involvement by peacekeeping operations in national reconciliation, security sector reform, national institution-rebuilding and economic and social development are conducive to a good start in peacebuilding and for a solid foundation for long-term peace and stability. Successful experiences by some peacekeeping operations in the area of quick-impact projects can be shared with others. Peacebuilding functions and mandates in some peacekeeping operations must be accompanied by the provision of the necessary human and financial resources.
Secondly, when carrying out peacebuilding mandates, peacekeeping operations should also follow the principles guiding United Nations peacekeeping operations, particularly, the principle of the consent of the host country. National institution-rebuilding, national reconciliation, security sector reform, elections and economic development all have a bearing on the independence and sovereignty of the host country. Peacebuilding mandates must be based on the full consideration and respect for the will of the host country and should be aligned with the host country’s own national development strategy and priority areas. Peacekeeping operations must formulate exit strategies and road maps so as to achieve smooth transitions from peacekeeping to comprehensive peacebuilding.
Thirdly, peacebuilding is an arduous long-term task and cannot be accomplished by peacekeeping operations alone. The Security Council, the Peacebuilding Commission and the Secretariat should strengthen their internal coordination and should complement each other. While carrying out the peacekeeping and peacebuilding function, peacekeeping operations should also strengthen their internal coordination. With regard to the promotion of political processes and national reconciliation, it is important to bring into full play the advantages of the countries in the region and regional organizations. As for economic and social recovery and development, the United Nations should surely mobilize the contributions that can be made by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and other international partners.
Last but not least, China endorses the draft resolution to be adopted at today’s meeting (S/2013/27). We thank Pakistan for the work it has done in the drafting of and consultations on the draft resolution.
Mr. Araud (France) (spoke in French): I would like to thank you, Mr. President, for your initiative in organizing this debate on one of the pillars of the United Nations work, namely, peacekeeping. I would also like to thank the Secretary-General for his statement.
Peacekeeping operations have evolved in recent years. Their level of deployment is unprecedented today, with 14 operations currently under way, and the mandates are increasingly broad and complex. That complexity and diversity of missions make necessary greater cooperation with States and regional organizations and stronger synergies between those involved in peacekeeping and those involved in peacebuilding.
I would recall France’s profound commitment to strengthening United Nations peacekeeping capacities. France is taking part in 7 of the 14 peacekeeping operations and contributes to operations mandated by the Security Council that are managed and led by the European Union or NATO, or in a national capacity. Lastly, it actively supports the participation of African States in peacekeeping operations through a regional network of national vocational schools, which provide technical and operational know-how adapted to the needs of officers of African armies. It is also participating, along with its European partners, in the EURO RECAMP programme.
Since the French-British initiative in 2009 on operations follow-up, we have advocated the strengthening of military expertise, improving the Council’s cooperation with troop-and police-contributing countries and better management of the costs of peacekeeping operations.
While a number of recommendations from the Brahimi report (S/2000/809), which was published more than 10 years ago, are still valid, I would like to turn to three pivotal elements in improving peacekeeping operations: the implementation of strategies for transition between peacekeeping and peacebuilding, the protection of civilians, and multilingualism.
First, obviously, we must draw up crisis exit strategies that ensure a lasting return to peace. Peacekeeping operations are not meant to last forever.
We must draw operational conclusions from the lack of barriers between peacekeeping and peacebuilding so that each stage of the United Nations presence prepares for the subsequent stage, in order to anticipate and forecast exit strategies. It is therefore essential that, under the leadership of the Special Representatives of the Secretary-General, peacekeeping operations be coordinated and that they cooperate closely with the offices of United Nations country teams so as to find any possible synergies and to avoid duplication of effort. We are counting on the Peacebuilding Commission to provide greater consistency in the activities of the international community in the exit stages of a conflict. We must take into account new threats, such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, organized crime and corruption, which have the potential to destabilize fragile countries.
Secondly, the protection of civilians is one of the main objectives of the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations. All the recent Security Council mandates contain a protection-of-civilians component, which is the priority in all circumstances. Peacekeepers must therefore be trained and their behaviour on the ground must be irreproachable. Peacekeepers must also provide a safe environment that supports the resumption of the political process. That requires the implementation of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, including for children affected by the conflict, and of programmes for security sector reform and the consolidation of the rule of law.
Women are one of the principal pivots in the transformation of a society. It is therefore vital to enhance their participation in decision-making. The integration of women into the police and the army will make it possible to enhance the fight against sexual violence and to promote human rights within those institutions.
I also recall the Secretariat policy to exclude non-essential contact with individuals who are the subject of an arrest warrant for war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide.
The third factor is multilingualism. Just over a year ago, in a similar debate, I underscored this issue and called upon the Secretariat to reform its approach to the problem. A year later, I note that nothing has been done.
It is necessary — I am not just defending the French language — for United Nations missions to be able to communicate with the populations in the countries where they are. That seems to be a matter of common sense. However, I see that in reality, the Secretariat’s recruitment policy takes into account not the need for peacekeeping forces to be able to communicate with the populations, but rather their ability to send reports in English to New York. I am aware that sending a report in English to New York is important, but it seems that it should be more important to be able to speak French with French-speaking populations, who did not have the good fortune to have been colonized by the British and therefore do not speak English. That is what I said 18 months ago and that is what I said three years ago, and the Secretariat has changed nothing.
It is not surprising that recruitment committees, which are made up of English-speakers, do not assign priority to a knowledge of French. I can provide an interesting example of a young woman, who was not French but was a francophone, who was a candidate for all peacekeeping operations. Members may well guess where she was sent. She was sent to Abyei, where, of course, she must use her French every day. I am just making that side comment — which is perhaps not the norm in these surroundings — knowing well that it will have no effect on the behaviour of the Secretariat, which will calmly continue to send English speakers to French-speaking regions. I find that regrettable, but from time to time we must recognize the limits of the powers of a permanent representative.
In conclusion, we would like to recall that the success of any peacekeeping mission is the result of joint efforts by members of the Council, countries that contribute financially, troop-and police-contributing countries and the Secretariat. However, those efforts will amount to nothing without a solid commitment by the host country.
Before I conclude, my country would like to commend the commitment of Blue Helmets of all nationalities, whose dedication in the service of peace has cost some of them their lives — as you have recalled, Mr. President. I am thinking in particular of the seven Blue Helmets of the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire, the five Blue Helmets of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur and the four pilots of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan who have died over the past six months. France pays tribute to them — in French.
Mrs. Perceval (Argentina) (spoke in Spanish): We thank Pakistan for organizing this open debate on an issue that Argentina, as a country that has contributed troops and police to United Nations operations since 1958, deems of particular importance, We currently have more than 1,000 personnel participating in the armed and security forces of seven peacekeeping operations, four of which are multidimensional.
We would like to thank the Secretary-General for his statement, and we welcome the presence here of the Foreign Secretary of Pakistan.
Argentina’s participation in peace operations reflects my country’s support for the development of a transparent and democratic collective security system in the framework of the United Nations, based on consolidated multilateral mechanisms and in the service of compliance with international law. Peacekeeping operations are an essential instrument of the Organization in complying with its objective of maintaining international peace and security, which we believe must be continually improved upon and strengthened in the future.
Another fundamental reason for our participation in peace operations stems from the close ties between peacekeeping and the promotion and protection of human rights, in particular through the rebuilding of institutions and the consolidation of democracy and the rule of law in those countries where increasingly complex and integrated multidimensional missions are taking place. We believe that progress in improving that type of mission with three components — military, police and civilian — with different but clear and precise mandates and rules of engagement is one of the greatest successes of the past decade. We must preserve that and improve upon it.
We welcome the draft resolution, on which we worked together with other Council members, and its request that the Secretary-General take account of the developments achieved in recent years, while underlining the broad range of peacekeeping operations existing now, from traditional operations dedicated primarily to monitoring ceasefires to new, multidimensional missions that carry out time-bound peacebuilding tasks.
Argentina supports peacekeeping operations taking on a multidimensional character when specific circumstances justify it, as long as their mandates include support and assistance for Governments of the countries in which missions are operating. Such support must include such considerations as assistance and cooperation to strengthen institutions and social participation, the holding of free and transparent elections, the establishment of inclusive political processes, the development of the rule of law, the design and implementation of effective plans for disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, security sector reform, the effective application of guidelines on the gender perspective, and measures for the protection of the civilian population, particularly those under imminent threat of physical violence, including all forms of sexual, sexist and gender-based violence. However, we recognize that the protection of civilians is a primary responsibility of the host country, as noted in the draft resolution to be adopted today (S/2013/27), which also refers to the provisions in this area in paragraph 16 of resolution 1674 (2006).
Particular attention should be given to the fact that, as a result of developments over the past decade, the mandates of new, multidimensional missions can include—asinthecaseoftheUnitedNationsStabilization Mission in Haiti –references to mission support for national Governments and local human rights groups in their efforts to promote and protect human rights, in particular those of women and children. We believe that such actions would contribute to ending impunity and ensuring that those responsible for violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law are held accountable before justice. Such mandates also promote the implementation of reliable mechanisms for monitoring and reporting on human rights situations in host countries, providing advice and assistance to national Governments in investigating violations of human rights and international humanitarian law so as to ensure that perpetrators do not go unpunished.
I wish to underscore the importance of cooperation between the United Nations and the International Criminal Court in the context of peacekeeping operations, in particular as it relates to the issue of non-essential contacts with individuals subject to arrest warrants issued by the Court. For Argentina, that should be part of the cooperation between the Court and the United Nations, as provided for in the relationship agreement between them.
Argentina welcomes the fact that the draft resolution reaffirms the commitment to address the particular impact of armed conflicts on women and children, underlining what is contained in resolution 1325 (2000)
and all subsequent resolutions. We reiterate the need for the full, equal and effective participation of women at all stages of peace processes, not only to achieve the goal of greater gender equality, but also because today it is clear that women taking a primary role in preventing and resolving conflicts and in peacebuilding guarantees better results.
Argentina understands that the actions included in the current multidimensional-mission mandates must be in line with the principle of national responsibility on the part of the countries where missions are deployed.
Whatever the character of the peace mission in question, it is crucial that the populations in countries where missions are deployed have the assurance and the evidence that the efforts of the Organization are designed with the aim of improving their situation and prospects for the future. It is not a question of imposing solutions but rather contributing so that each society, on the basis of its own experiences and expectations, may build the democratic foundations on which to achieve sustainable development and pave the way towards a just, stable and lasting peace.
We recognize that peacekeeping operations increasingly depend on the possibility of deploying high-level specialized personnel, especially for specific police and civilian tasks, such as experts in the rule of law, human rights, and security sector reform. We underscore that the draft resolution that we will vote on today calls on national Governments and international organizations to put to use and increase their capacities for cooperation in post-conflict peacebuilding. We have noted as a positive trend in this regard the important potential of innovation in technical cooperation and in strengthening South-South cooperation.
Aware that peace missions are today the most visible face of the United Nations, and aware of the new challenges posed by multidimensional missions, the Organization and each of its Member States have the responsibility to step up continuous training for mission staff in the areas of human rights and international humanitarian law so that, as in the case of our country, those who participate in missions can continue to play an impeccable role in those areas.
Argentina believes that the future of peacekeeping operations depends on their having clear and adequately financed mandates. We need to continue relying on consensus in the General Assembly so that the efforts of troop-and police-contributing countries are met with an analogous commitment from those countries with greatest financial responsibilities. This is not merely a budgetary question but a political issue that affects the work and the credibility of the Organization in an area as important as peacekeeping, in particular when we compare the relatively limited budget of $8 billion available for all peacekeeping operations with the enormity of worldwide military spending.
Finally, Argentina is pleased to be a sponsor of the draft resolution. We do so paying tribute to the personnel of peacekeeping operations who have lost their lives over the past 65 years, including 26 Argentines, for their inestimable contribution to peace, development and the well-being of all of our peoples.
We are convinced that it must be made clear for global public opinion that multidimensional peacekeeping operations are not war by another name, but a strategic instrument in the service of our peoples, offering assistance and cooperation in peacekeeping and peacebuilding.
Mr. Churkin (Russian Federation) (spoke in Russian): We welcome the presence of the Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, Mr. Jilani, to preside over today’s open meeting on peacekeeping operations.
United Nations peacekeeping activities are facing tremendous challenges today. The geography of conflicts is expanding and their external influence growing. Destabilization in one country threatens a spillover of weapons and the movement of fighting and terrorists into neighbouring States.
Many peacekeeping operations are deployed in situations where the internal political crises are far from over and peacekeepers therefore need to take on functions which States cannot fully perform in the aftermath of the most heightened phase of a conflict.
The Security Council is reacting to the changing international situation by giving peacekeeping operations more comprehensive and multidimensional mandates. It is our view that they must remain realistic and achievable in the field and have objectives that, if met, will help to overcome the causes of the conflict and to re-establish a firm peace.
In such situations, assistance in the areas of security sector reform, demobilization, reintegration, disarmament and demining all are of key importance. Closely related to that is the need to restore the rule of law in post-conflict countries The contribution of the Blue Helmets in dealing with such challenges can hardly be overestimated, because when a situation deteriorates they are the first to arrive, and their presence, knowledge and experience represents an important component of efforts to normalize and stabilize the situation.
In the process of drawing down peacekeeping operations, conditions must be created that are conducive to long-term political stabilization and socioeconomic development. In doing so, it is imperative to abide — not in words but in deeds — by the principles of respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of post- conflict States and of the recognition of the national responsibility for peacebuilding, and priority must be given to the area of national capacity-building.
Of course, peacekeeping operations cannot fully take upon themselves the responsibility for long-term peacebuilding and must coordinate their work with other important players, the Peacebuilding Commission and regional organizations, funds and programmes.
In connection with United Nations peacekeeping, we would like to draw attention to several issues. Each peacekeeping operation is unique, and its mandate is determined by the Council for each specific situation. We deem counterproductive, and in some cases even dangerous, the broadening interpretation of Council mandates by both individual States and the Secretariat, which prepares guidelines and instructions for missions. In that respect, there should be no generalized approach.
As important as the protection of civilians is, we believe that it must not overshadow other important challenges in the context of the mandates of peacekeeping operations. We are equally concerned at the trend towards an arbitrary interpretation of the norms of international humanitarian law for the protection of civilians in armed conflict and their application to the responsibility to protect. It is unacceptable to use issues related to the protection of civilians and overall human rights to achieve political goals, especially as a pretext for interference in the internal affairs of sovereign States.
We call for extreme caution and for discussions on strengthening mandates and increasing the operational capability of peacekeepers with respect to the use of force and intimidation. Peacekeeping operations have a unique kind of legitimacy, so it would be dangerous for both United Nations peacekeeping operations and the United Nations system overall if a situation were to arise in which the Blue Helmets transcended their neutrality and were drawn into an internal political conflict, providing support to one of the participants.
The safety of peacekeepers must be an absolute priority. Recently, in South Sudan, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army shot down a Russian helicopter with four Russian nationals on board who were working on contract with the United Nations Mission in that country. That incident is a tragic reminder of the responsibility of States where United Nations peacekeeping missions are deployed to ensure their security and to ensure favourable conditions so as to enable them to meet their objectives. The safety of peacekeepers must be unconditional and a priority in the management of peacekeeping operations. We are not pleased with the very slow pace of the investigation of that incident. We anticipate that the Secretariat and the South Sudanese authorities will take measures to speed up its careful investigation and that the perpetrators will be brought to justice. It is necessary to ensure that such incidents are not repeated in South Sudan or anywhere else.
Peacekeeping operations will be successful if their efforts are in line with the Charter of the United Nations and the norms of international law, with unfailing observance of the principle of the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security, and based on the degree of our collective preparedness to invest in the Organization’s knowledge base, resources and personnel.
We thank the delegation of Pakistan for the initiative of holding this meeting today, and we support the draft resolution (S/2013/27) it has submitted, of which we are also a sponsor.
Mr. Nduhungirehe (Rwanda): Allow me to begin by thanking the Secretary-General for his comprehensive briefing to the Council. I also would like to thank His Excellency Jalil Abbas Jilani, as President of the Security Council, for having organized this important debate and for the tremendous role Pakistan has always played in peacekeeping operations.
Rwanda is a committed contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations. We hope that we can continue to share our experience in international peacekeeping and national peacebuilding, in order to enrich the debate on the future role of multidimensional peacekeeping.
Rwanda’s commitment to the maintenance of international peace and security is based on our responsibilities as a contributing member of the international community and on a moral obligation shaped by the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi and the failure of the world to intervene. Our active participation in peacekeeping missions began in 2004, in Darfur, with the African Union Mission in the Sudan, and today Rwanda is the sixth major troop-and police-contributing country in the United Nations and the largest troop-and police-contributing country in the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), with a presence in seven other United Nations missions.
Having embarked upon our own path of reconciliation and nation-building, my country is of the firm belief that peacekeeping and peacebuilding are two sides of the same coin and that the nexus between the two should continually be enhanced as the scope of mandates continue to expand, along with the tasks of peacekeepers.
I applaud the draft resolution (S/2013/27), which Rwanda has co-sponsored. It reiterates the interdependence between peacekeeping and peacebuilding, and encourages progress on a coherent approach to addressing all stages of the conflict cycle. Addressing critical peacebuilding priorities will facilitate the successful undertaking of peacekeeping mandates and ensure a coherent and effective response to peacekeeping, stabilization and recovery. It is time to give peacebuilding a legitimate place in both the budgets and the mandates of peacekeeping operations.
As peacekeepers endeavour to address the challenges at hand, they should not seek to take over security and governance responsibilities; instead, they should seek to build local capacity to address those challenges.
In that regard, let me address a few areas of focus that were outlined in the concept note (S/2013/4, annex) prepared by Pakistan for this debate, namely, quick- impact projects, training and partnerships.
Now more than ever, the first boots on the ground need to be able to perform early peacebuilding tasks, in addition to maintaining the ceasefire and protecting civilians. In order to ensure that United Nations peacekeepers can deliver and engage effectively with their civilian counterparts, a training mechanism in post- conflict community development for United Nations peacekeeping forces would benefit the peacekeeping process as a whole, including the peacekeepers and local populations.
In addition, the unique comparative advantages of the United Nations in the field of peacekeeping can be optimized by enlisting troop-and police-contributing countries with experience or expertise relevant to the needs of a particular mission, including appropriate language skills at all levels, in order to be able to communicate without interpretation with local authorities and local populations. Moreover, preparedness, such as stand-by forces with earmarked trained personnel, is key. Hurriedly collecting troops from different countries with various levels of training, ethics and commitment is not the best way to put together a peacekeeping force.
Furthermore, any previous national experience with early peacebuilding and capacity-building should be emphasized in force requirements. In addition to traditional predeployment training, Rwandan troops often participate in post-conflict peacebuilding workshops before deploying to peacekeeping missions and have first-hand national experience with small- scale community development projects.
For example, improved energy-saving cooking stoves, which use less firewood than traditional stoves, were introduced in Rwanda in 2000 in order to preserve trees and the environment. Now Rwandan peacekeepers have brought such stoves to Darfur, where women and young girls live in fear of getting raped every time they venture outside camps for internally displaced persons or their villages to collect firewood for cooking. Apart from saving the lives of women who risk being raped or killed while collecting firewood, the improved stoves also allow troops and police who were previously escorting them to focus on other mandated tasks. Rwandan peacekeepers have also built classrooms and clinics, planted trees in Darfur, and led community clean-up programmes in several Haitian towns that have since become permanent fixtures.
Quick-impact projects help to lay the foundations of locally-owned long-term development, capacity-and institution-building. Products such as the stoves, as well as the construction of classrooms, clinics, police stations and basic sanitation infrastructure have had a positive impact on Rwandan society during post- conflict reconstruction. I hope that the budgets for quick-impact projects continue to increase as they become integral to peacekeeping operations.
It is crucial that partnerships between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations, especially the African Union, continue to be enhanced and strategically coordinated. Multilateral partnerships will help to ensure that troops are deployed to missions that are endowed with resources matching their mandates, and to prevent restrictions or caveats imposed by some troop-and police-contributing countries on the use of their personnel. The political backing, concrete support and legitimacy provided by such groups to United Nations peacekeeping operations are as important today as they have ever been.
Planning processes should, from the initial stages, consider early peacebuilding tasks that can and should be implemented along with a mission’s traditional mandate. Adequate training, meaningful partnerships with all stakeholders and early infrastructure projects owned by the host State are a few of the tools that can help to pave a road to sustainable peace and security in areas of the world where that is necessary.
Responding to the call of the Secretary-General to contribute needed enablers, Rwanda has recently deployed military utility helicopters to the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan, and we hope that our aviation unit will enhance the Mission’s ability to implement its mandate. We again reiterate Rwanda’s commitment to supporting the multidimensional approach to United Nations peacekeeping, and pay tribute to the women and men serving in peacekeeping missions, as well as those who have made the ultimate sacrifice in the name of peace.
Mr. Loulichki (Morocco) (spoke in French): First, I would like to thank you, Sir, for your initiative in organizing this debate on a multidimensional approach to United Nations peacekeeping. The debate, held in the presence of Mr. Ban Ki-moon and Mr. Jalil Abbas Jilani, ForeignSecretaryofPakistan,underscores hiscountry’s image as an important troop-contributing country that is faithful in its commitment to international peace.
My delegation aligns itself with the statement to be made on behalf of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries by the representative of Egypt.
The landmark figure of 60 peacekeeping operations launched by the United Nations since 1948 is more than symbolic; it represents a new phase in the ability of the United Nations to undertake the central activity that is its raison d’être. Peacekeeping has grown and evolved in an unprecedented manner, due to increasingly grave internal and regional crises that threaten international peace and security.
The growth and diversification of the areas of peacekeeping intervention have brought profound changes in the mandates of peacekeeping operations, which now cover a wide range of activities, from security and support for political processes to disarmament and demobilization — all tasks that combine peacekeeping and peacebuilding. Morocco also welcomes the proactive nature of United Nations action and its capacity to mobilize human and financial resources in response to the appeals and aspirations of the concerned States and their populations in terms of peacebuilding and peacekeeping.
Experience has amply demonstrated the close interlinkage between restoring and building peace, which needs to be organized and structured as soon as a multidimensional peacekeeping operation has been established, and must evolve as the mission proceeds. Multidimensional peacekeeping operations require the complex interoperability of multiple components — in particular military, police and civilian — interacting together or in cooperation with other stakeholders to implement the critical goals of peacebuilding via their integrated mandates, thereby contributing to the foundations of sustainable peace and development in the aftermath of conflict.
At the same time, it must be recalled that while support for the political process, national reconciliation, economic revitalization and the establishment of the rule of law are crucial factors, security remains the key element in determining, in large part, the success of the others. Nothing will succeed without security and everything becomes possible when security is ensured throughout the entire country. In that respect, early mobilization of adequate resources for capacity- building and the financing of such related activities as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration remains key to the success of any security sector reform.
However, while establishing and building security is an absolute priority for the vast majority of United Nations peacekeeping operations, accomplishing other complementary tasks varies from one situation to another, based on the challenges, capacities and progress made in each country. The nature of a conflict, its origins, the regional environment, and available capacities and resources are among the factors that will determine the interaction of peacebuilding and peacekeeping.
It is also clear that such linkage will require coherent strategies and coordination among the various multinational and bilateral stakeholders, including the United Nations system, international financial institutions, regional or subregional organizations, and bilateral partners. Internal and inter-agency coordination are sine qua non to avoid duplication and ensure the optimal use of available resources, and hence effective United Nations action.
The basis for the success of any peacekeeping operation, whatever its scope, lies in such interdependent factors as whether the mandate established by the Council is realistic; triangular cooperation among the Secretariat, troop-contributing countries and the administration in the planning and implementation stages of the mandates; and genuine exit strategies containing measures to ensure sustainable development.
Needless to say, all such activities and strategies must continue to adhere to the fundamental principles that define United Nations peacekeeping: consent of the parties; impartiality and the non-use of force except in cases of self-defence; respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the countries concerned; and non-interference in their internal affairs. Those principles are and must remain the essential condition of all collective peacekeeping activities and the identification of responsibilities and national peacebuilding priorities.
In relation to the principle of national ownership, the participation of all elements of a State is an essential condition for peacebuilding. It is the primary responsibility of the Government concerned to demonstrate the political will to assume its responsibilities and to define its priorities and strategies for peacebuilding in the aftermath of a conflict. The success of such strategies depends on establishing balanced and sustainable partnerships and results- based mutual responsibility, while bearing in mind the three main pillars of peacekeeping: defining needs, sustainable support and coordinating long-term action for actors on the ground.
Ensuring the success of any peacekeeping operation, whatever its scope, is the task of men and women who are committed to serving the objectives of the Organization. The effectiveness of their commitment depends on their interaction with local populations. In that regard, I can only join my French colleague in his appeal for multilingualism. I would like to be a little more optimistic in the hope that there will at last be some follow-up on that clearly obvious and logical request because it is a question of the effectiveness of the troops on the ground and the necessary interaction with populations and troops, in particular for civilian protection. It also depends on the United Nations security measures implemented on the ground to improve the safety and security of all troops, military police and observers and unarmed personnel.
I would like to take this opportunity to reiterate our firm condemnation of the attacks on the staff of peacekeeping operations. We pay tribute to all contributing countries for their commitment. Morocco, whose Royal Armed Forces have participated for a half century in multilateral forces in order to secure and build peace and international security, will continue, in partnership with the United Nations, to serve the principles and objectives of the Organization.
Mr. Musayev (Azerbaijan): At the outset, I would like to thank the Pakistani presidency of the Security Council for organizing this important open debate on peacekeeping. We are also grateful to the Secretary- General for his valuable contribution to our discussion on the topic.
The dynamics of the political and security changes in the world require a high degree of adaptability of the United Nations timely and effective response to the interconnected challenges brought about by those changes. Originally conceived to perform the traditional task of ceasefire monitoring, peacekeeping has conceptually and operationally evolved into a more complex and multidimensional institution with a number of components. Notwithstanding that transformation, peacekeeping operations remain an indispensable tool for our collective actions to maintain international peace and security.
Coherence among peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development is important. At present, a number of United Nations peacekeeping operations have mandates to implement a range of peacebuilding activities. By preventing the recurrence of violence, by supporting and enabling critical tasks in certain areas, and by assisting host countries in developing their post- conflict reconstruction strategies, multidimensional peacekeeping operations establish the necessary foundations for successive peacebuilding processes.
Azerbaijan believes that the ongoing deliberations on ways and means of increasing the effectiveness of
peacekeeping should further reinforce the centrality of the underlying elements that form the basis of peacekeeping. I would like to focus on some of those.
First, the task of assigning peacekeeping and peacebuilding functions rests with the Security Council, which defines the nature of peacekeeping operations and guides their activities. Therefore, the mandates must be clear, realistic and achievable and must be tailored and constantly adapted to the realities on the ground. Also, operations must be fully equipped with all operational and logistical capabilities necessary to carry out their mandates.
Secondly, the principles of the consent of the parties, impartiality and the non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, must be observed at all times.
Thirdly, the Governments of countries emerging from conflict bear primary responsibility for identifying their needs and for developing post-conflict development agendas. Therefore, multidimensional peacekeeping operations should support the efforts of host countries and coordinate their activities with national authorities in all spheres.
Fourthly, strengthened cooperation and regular consultations with troop-and police-contributing countries, including through interaction among them, the Security Council and the Secretariat, should be ensured.
Most important, the mandate of any peacekeeping operation must explicitly uphold the principles of political independence, sovereign equality, territorial integrity and non-intervention in matters that are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any State. Peacekeeping must not be used to sustain the status quo created as a result of the violation of those fundamental norms and principles of international law, or to consolidate illegal situations existing at the time that hostilities were suspended and to encourage fait accompli-based solutions. The fact that illegal situations continue because of political circumstances does not mean that they are therefore rendered legal. Law is more important than force. That understanding and approach must be ensured throughout the whole cycle of peacekeeping operation.
In some situations of armed conflict the restoration of the demographic composition of the population, affected as a result of large-scale ethnic expulsion and the creation of ethnically cleansed areas, is a prerequisite for the legitimacy and sustainability of peace. It is therefore important that, in such situations, peacekeepers create the necessary conditions for and serve as the guarantors of the full, safe and dignified return of refugees and internally displaced persons to their places of origin.
After more than a decade, the Security Council will adopt, as an outcome of today’s debate, a landmark resolution on peacekeeping, of which Azerbaijan is one of the sponsors. I would like to thank Pakistan for its timely initiative and able leadership in that regard and to express our appreciation for its outstanding contribution to United Nations peacekeeping.
Ms. Lucas (Luxembourg) (spoke in French): Luxembourg warmly thanks Pakistan for convening this open debate on peacekeeping. We welcome the exemplary commitment of your country, Mr. President, which is reflected in the fact that it is one of the leading United Nations troop-contributing countries. We would also like to thank the Secretary-General for his presentation.
This debate allows us to have an exchange on all dimensions of United Nations peacekeeping operations and the challenges and opportunities resulting from the developments in those operations in the past few years.
Luxembourg fully associates itself with the statement to be made by the observer of the European Union.
Peacekeeping operations are at the heart of the work of the United Nations. Today, they are more complex and diverse, working in increasingly difficult environments and in situations that can suddenly change. In order to meet that reality and given the fact that security, development and the rule of law are intrinsically linked, the great majority of peacekeeping operations are now multidimensional. As a result, the mandates of peacekeeping operations may now include, in particular, strengthening rule-of-law institutions, security and defence sector reform, the protection of civilians, particularly children affected by armed conflict, the protection and promotion of human rights, combating sexual violence and the support of inclusive political processes, such as establishing the necessary security conditions for the provision of humanitarian assistance.
All of these issues go far beyond any traditional concept of peacekeeping, reaching for the establishment of lasting conditions conducive to the health of societies
and their citizens. Peacekeepers are therefore called on to be peacebuilders from the outset by fostering peacebuilding in the aftermath of conflict around the world, and increasingly, by supporting the host country’s public institutions. Luxembourg welcomes progress in that direction.
Peacekeeping and peacebuilding are complementary and deeply linked. They require a holistic, coordinated and integrated approach that — from the initial planning stages of a peacekeeping operation through eventual modifications of the mandate — takes peacebuilding into sufficient consideration and clearly integrates its priorities into mandates. As many members of the Council have said, the Security Council must ensure that peacekeeping mandates are clear, credible, realistic and unambiguous.
Taking into account the contributions of various actors, including the Peacebuilding Commission, and the basic principle of national ownership, no attempt to integrate peacekeeping and peacebuilding can succeed unless the roles of the many players are clearly defined and their work is effectively coordinated. Such an approach will increase the added value of every contribution and bolster the effectiveness and efficiency of every stakeholder. We also believe that the United Nations should strengthen the pool of civil capacity, especially by enlisting the expertise of people from countries that have experience in post-conflict peacebuilding or democratic transition.
It is clear that no lasting peace can be achieved unless we address the root causes of a conflict from the outset. The crises in the Sahel and the Horn of Africa make that evident every day. In our view, including all sectors of a population, in particular the most vulnerable groups, such as women, in peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations is the best way to prevent, in both the short and the long terms, the resurgence of the frustrations that can reignite a conflict. Luxembourg has therefore contributed to the efforts of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations to increase women’s participation in political processes, especially in Haiti, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan and Timor-Leste.
We are pleased that the draft resolution to be adopted today (S/2013/27) highlights the essential role played in United Nations missions by advisers for the protection of the most vulnerable populations, especially children. Their roles as advocates, facilitators, advisers to heads of missions, information officers and monitors are critical components for the protection of children.
The Council is right to underline the importance of deploying qualified and experienced peacekeepers, with all the necessary skills, including language skills, and who respect the Organization’s zero-tolerance policy with respect to misconduct. Sexual exploitation and abuse must not be tolerated. On the other hand, every measure should be taken to ensure the safety and security of deployed personnel. Luxembourg strongly condemns any attack on United Nations peacekeeping personnel.
I conclude by expressing Luxembourg’s deep gratitude towards all peacekeeping soldiers, police and civil workers who do indispensable work, often under very difficult circumstances, in implementing the mandates entrusted to them by the Council. We honour the memory of those women and men who have given their lives executing their duty in the service of the United Nations and the cause of protecting international peace and security.
The President: It is my understanding that the Council is ready to proceed to the vote on the draft resolution before it (S/2013/27). I would like to thank all Council members for co-sponsoring the draft resolution, which is now a presidential text. It is a most fitting tribute to the United Nations and to our peacekeepers. I shall put the draft resolution to the vote now.
A vote was taken by a show of hands.
Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, China, France,
Guatemala, Luxembourg, Morocco, Pakistan,
Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Rwanda,
Togo, United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland and United States of America
The President: There were 15 votes in favour. The draft resolution has been adopted unanimously as resolution 2086 (2013).
I wish to request all speakers to limit their statements to no more than four minutes in order to enable the Council to carry out its work expeditiously. Delegations with longer statements are kindly requested to circulate the texts in writing and to deliver a condensed version when speaking in the Chamber.
I now give the floor to the representative of Egypt.
Mr. Khalil (Egypt): I have the honour to speak today on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
At the outset, I would like to express our appreciation to the Pakistani presidency of the Security Council for organizing today’s debate on United Nations peacekeeping, a subject of great interest to all members of the Non-Aligned Movement. I would also like to thank the Foreign Secretary of Pakistan for being here with us to chair this debate and for his opening remarks.
Egypt and the Non-Aligned Movement welcome the adoption by consensus of resolution 2086 (2013).
The concept of peacekeeping emerged just a few years after the United Nation was founded. It has evolved over the past decades to constitute one of the most important tools within the collective security system of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security. Peacekeeping operations range from traditional peacekeeping, focused on maintaining peace between warring parties and monitoring the cessation of hostilities, to a complex and multidimensional process that involves conducting peacebuilding tasks and addressing the root causes of conflict. Through the years, peacekeepers have truly become the early peacebuilders.
While recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the needs and situation of the country concerned, the nature of peacekeeping operations and their mandates emanates from the changing characteristics of conflicts, in particular the increase in intra-rather than inter-State conflicts. The triggers of conflict are increasingly linked to underlying deficits in the capacity of State institutions to provide security, justice and inclusive economic development.
In that context, it is imperative to make sure that peacekeeping and peacebuilding are mutually reinforcing in the pursuit of lasting peace and stability. This will happen only through support for the crucial transition phase of peacebuilding that follows immediate post-conflict peacekeeping and precedes long-term recovery. Recovery should ensure the achievement of sustainable economic and social development in order to avoid a relapse into conflict.
The United Nations has been fully cognizant of these changes in the characteristics of conflicts and their impact on peacekeeping operations mandates.
In his introduction to the valuable book entitled From Global Apartheid to Global Village: Africa and the United Nations, Boutros Boutros-Ghali mentioned that the new characteristics of conflict have placed a much greater demand upon the United Nations and forced the Organization to respond in a variety of ways.
In recent years, the United Nations has come a long way in incorporating peacebuilding tasks into the mandate of multidimensional peacekeeping operations. Multidimensional peacekeeping operations have in turn made a significant contribution to support for peacebuilding priority areas, including basic safety and security, the political process, the provision of basic services, the restoration of core Government functions and economic revitalization. Those tasks should be aligned with the strategies of the host country in order to ensure national ownership.
The Non-Aligned Movement believes that peacekeeping is an important tool at the disposal of the United Nations for addressing conflict situations. Yet it should not be a substitute for others, such as preventive diplomacy and political efforts to resolve conflicts, particularly at their earliest stages. It should be resorted to after a thorough assessment of a conflict situation based on accurate information and with a clear understanding of the objectives of the peacekeeping operation, as well as a clear vision for exit strategies. Enhancing the safety of peacekeeping operations personnel should also be high on our agenda when planning and deploying peacekeeping operations.
The Non-Aligned Movement emphasizes that, in the establishment of any peacekeeping operation or the extension of the mandate of existing operations, the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter and the main principles governing such operations — the consent of the parties, the non-use of force except in self-defence, and impartiality — should be strictly observed. Respect for the principles of sovereign equality, political independence, the territorial integrity of all States and non-intervention in matters that are essentially within their domestic jurisdiction should also be upheld.
The Non-Aligned Movement stresses that peacekeeping concepts, policies and strategies should be developed through intergovernmental processes in order to ensure their applicability and consensus among Member States. The Non-Aligned Movement reaffirms the role of the Special Committee on
Peacekeeping Operations as the sole body responsible for peacekeeping policymaking.
Cooperation between the Security Council, the Secretariat and the troop-contributing countries — and, by the way, the Non-Aligned Movement includes the top 10 troop-contributing countries among its members — is an indispensable factor in the success of peacekeeping operations. The role of the troop-contributing countries, whose troops are put at risk for the sake of peace, in the overall process of peacekeeping, and the importance of their full participation in policy formation and decision-making in matters pertaining to the strength, mandate and composition of peacekeeping operations cannot be overemphasized. Providing all the necessary financial and logistical support to peacekeeping operations is crucial to the successful implementation of their mandates. Peacekeepers should not be asked to do more with fewer resources. In addition, the issue of the reimbursement of troop costs should be resolved. The financing of peacekeeping operations should not become a burden to troop-contributing countries.
While reaffirming the primary responsibility of the Security Council in the maintenance of international peace and security, it is imperative to continue to enhance cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations in addressing conflict and post-conflict situations through joint efforts in the areas of conflict prevention, conflict resolution, peacekeeping and peacebuilding. The existing cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union is a model that demonstrates the potential for cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations, as envisaged in Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations.
Finally, the Non-Aligned Movement wishes to pay tribute to the men and women who are serving in peacekeeping operations around the world, as well as to those peacekeepers who have paid the ultimate price in advancing the cause of peace. The members of the Non-Aligned Movement reaffirm that they will remain fully committed to supporting United Nations endeavours in the pursuit of peace and stability around the world.
Lastly, speaking in my national capacity, I would like to voice my support for the remarks of Ambassador Gérard Araud of France regarding multilingualism in peacekeeping operations, and of course to reaffirm that this should include the six languages of the United Nations, including Arabic.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of New Zealand.
Mr. McLay (New Zealand): New Zealand welcomes the fact that Pakistan’s Foreign Secretary has chosen to be present for this debate, and we join Luxembourg and others in applauding the fact that Pakistan, one of the principal troop-contributing countries (TCCs) of the United Nations, is taking the initiative to bring this debate to the Security Council, thereby demonstrating why it is so important to have strong TCC representation on the Council.
It is also very fitting that this debate follows closely on the December debate on peacebuilding (S/PV.6897). As New Zealand stressed at that time, effective peacebuilding activities are vital during the peacekeeping phase, so we are very pleased to see that point emphasized so strongly in Pakistan’s concept note (S/2013/4, annex).
To enable the drawdown of costly peacekeeping missions, real and effective work is needed to address the root causes of conflict, and that requires a genuinely multidimensional approach on the part of the Council and the United Nations as a whole. Tasks such as security sector reform, extending the rule of law, establishing inclusive governance and creating early- impact employment and economic opportunities must all be part of the overall United Nations mandate. But to be effective, they must also be very well integrated. If they are not, we will continue to see the dreadful United Nations silo problems that in the past have sometimes rendered peacekeeping ineffective. The multidimensional elements of a mission must therefore be given the same prominence as is usually accorded the military presence of the peacekeeping force itself.
The second key requirement is for peacekeeping missions to be seen to deliver early and tangible benefits to host country populations, thus helping to build the mission’s political capital with the host Government and other stakeholders. We have unfortunately seen too many instances where host Governments have simply lost patience with peacekeeping missions.
So how can the Council manage United Nations peacekeeping missions in a truly multidimensional manner? Its mandate under the Charter is not unlimited. It cannot and should not be seeking exclusive competence over all aspects of a multidimensional
mission, but given the intimate connection between the various causes of conflict, the Council still has a critically important role to play. That said, its current practice is not well suited to complex situations where there are overlapping competencies and responsibilities.
Key stakeholders outside the Council, and not least host countries, are often marginalized in its consideration of multidimensional mandates, and we join Egypt and others in saying that peacekeeping tasks must be aligned with the strategies of the host country in order to ensure national ownership. Better interaction with the relevant peacebuilding configurations is one potentially very useful step. But that is not always possible, because most of the missions with Council mandates are not countries that are on the Peacebuilding Commission’s agenda. We therefore need to go much deeper in our search for effective tools for proper oversight of effective integration.
We suggest that the Council could start with one or two situations on its agenda where there is at present no peacebuilding configuration, and could establish a configuration-type of format of its own, based on a partnership between the Council, the host State and others, as appropriate, as well as with the relevant United Nations agencies, such as the United Nations Development Programme. A less formal configuration of that character would be a very powerful tool for better, collective United Nations engagement on the multifaceted issues that face almost every peacekeeping task.
The right mix of political inclusivity and informality could permit the input of the relevant stakeholders, including host countries, donors, troop- contributing countries and United Nations agencies. It would also provide a context for more sustained and effective Council leadership on conflict prevention and resolution, using, as we have urged in the past, the Council’s tools under Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations. Above all, it would help to fulfil the promise of truly multidimensional and effective United Nations peacekeeping, which could address the root causes of conflict, and would be a tangible expression of the Council’s commitment to Chapter VI and the peaceful settlement of disputes. That is what we seek of all peacekeeping missions, and with the right measures, that is what can be delivered.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Brazil.
Mrs. Dunlop (Brazil): Thank you, Mr. President, for convening this very timely debate and for choosing so wisely the topic of our discussion. I also wish to thank the Secretary-General for his briefing.
As a long-standing advocate of a more integrated approach to security and development, Brazil sees the adoption of today’s resolution as a positive step in the platform for our future work.
Very often, the immediate threats to which we tend to react are but manifestations of structural constraints that may make societies prone to violence and conflict — poverty, the lack of food security, the absence of opportunities and resources, unresolved political grievances and unheeded calls for greater inclusion, equality and dignity.
In that regard, it is essential to have in mind, as recognized by the Council for over a decade, that peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding are closely interrelated and that the quest for peace requires a comprehensive, concerted and determined approach that addresses the root causes of conflicts, including their economic and social dimensions.
The approach requires increased awareness by the international community regarding the imperative of integrating measures in favour of sustainable development, with food security, into strategies aimed at the promotion of peace and security. The reiteration of the message was a fundamental objective of the debate presided over in the Council by the Brazilian Minister of External Relations, Antonio Patriota, in February 2011 (see S/PV.6479).
Brazil and many other delegations have long stressed the need for the Security Council, from the earliest possible stages of the drafting of peacekeeping mandates, to look beyond the immediate horizon of events into the root causes of conflicts. One way to do that is to incorporate, from the very beginning and throughout the whole life of a mission, key peacebuilding objectives into relevant peacekeeping mandates and to make sure that those priorities are reflected in mission planning and force generation.
We hope that resolution 2086 (2013), adopted today, will contribute to further integrating all the relevant bodies and stakeholders in the endeavour. We welcome in particular the encouragement for the Security Council to benefit from the advisory role of the Peacebuilding Commission.
As we recognize the progress achieved in developing the principles and practices of multidimensional peacekeeping, we also have to face the challenges to the implementation of complex mandates. Apart from integrated mission planning and force generation, strengthening the civilian component of peacekeeping missions is essential. Only with the right civilian capacity can United Nations missions perform tasks such as supporting State reforms, strengthening rule-oflaw institutions, promoting human rights, assisting national authorities in articulating peacebuilding priorities and liaising with political actors in support of political processes.
We need to provide those capacities in sufficient numbers and with adequate resources, and we must ensure that mandates remain consistent with the reality on the ground. The experience of developing countries in those areas should be better tapped into. Peacekeeping activities with an evident peacebuilding dimension — such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, quick-impact projects and community violence reduction — must also be adequately supported. Such activities provide local populations with early peace dividends, which can greatly contribute to the sustainability of the peacebuilding process.
Prevention is another important element. Prevention necessarily brings peacekeeping and peacebuilding together. To create a protective environment for civilians, for example, involves a variety of aspects that must come together, from operational readiness to the provision of some basic services and from deterrence to security sector reform.
Lasting and sustainable peace is what every United Nations peacekeeping mission strives to achieve. Exit strategies are essential in that regard. They must be a part of the comprehensive compacts with national Governments, the people, civil society and the international community. Exit strategies cannot become preconceived scripts and formulas.
Those strategies will be more successful when they are owned by societies as an important instrument to articulate the gradual and effective assumption of national responsibilities. We must ensure that, when a peacekeeping mission leaves, it does not carry away with it the very ability to mobilize still much needed efforts and resources.
Multidimensional peacekeeping brings the issue of human resources to the fore. Brazil values and recognizes the contribution of all men and women, military and civilian, who carry out ever more complex tasks on the ground. We pay tribute to all who have given their lives to the cause of peace under the United Nations flag.
Our experience in Haiti shows that a multidimensional approach to peacekeeping is also about making our peacekeepers ever more sensitive to the demands of those in need. It is about having peacekeepers who are respected by civilians not for the weapons they carry, but for the impact they help to promote on people’s daily lives.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of South Africa.
Mr. Crowley (South Africa): My delegation wishes to express its appreciation you, Mr. President, for convening this meeting on this very important subject underpinning the collective efforts of the States Members of the United Nations in the maintenance of international peace and security.
We also wish to express our appreciation to the Secretary-General for his briefing to the Council earlier today.
South Africa aligns itself with the statement delivered by the representative of the Egypt on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Today’s United Nations peacekeepers are mostly deployed in situations of intra-State conflict, therefore necessitating both the deployment of formed and civilian components to deal with the complexity of the challenges confronting conflict-affected States. The multidimensional approach to peacekeeping has shown to be an effective tool to address modern-day conflict situations. Ten of the current 14 peacekeeping missions that are configured in that manner bear testimony to that fact.
The multidimensional peacekeeping approach has also, over the years, proven to be an international peacebuilding instrument that has contributed to laying the foundation for sustainable peace and democratic governance. United Nations peacekeeping therefore continues to occupy a central role in the functioning of the collective security system established by the Charter of the United Nations.
The deployment of United Nations peacekeeping forces gives rise to high expectations at the international,
regional and national levels, especially among the civilian population of the host State who are generally caught in the cross-fire of conflict and who bear the brunt of the conflicts. It is therefore an understandable and credible expectation that political support should translate into concrete outcomes through, inter alia, technical and financial support, as well as the anticipated transfer of expertise and resources during the lifespan of a peacekeeping/peacebuilding mission.
Security Council resolutions that mandate such peacekeeping missions must not only be realistic, achievable and well-resourced, but they must be able to meet those expectations. Consistency and coherence are imperative in that regard, and the Security Council must be responsive to the calls of the affected parties to a dispute or conflict. Selectivity in its responsiveness must be avoided in order for multidimensional peacekeeping to be truly effective.
Human rights components, by means of an example, should not be avoided in some multidimensional peacekeeping missions for the sake of political expediency. Such an approach has only proven to prolong some conflicts. The Security Council must ensure that its decisions are upheld in promoting international peace and security and to avoid selective approaches that end up disappointing populations who yearn for the realization of their legitimate aspirations.
Peacekeeping missions provide a security umbrella through the presence of uniformed personnel and contribute to preserving the political space. As the first United Nations presence in the field, peacekeepers are correctly considered as the entry point for peacebuilding, upon which other stakeholders, including the host Governments, will build in designing a peacebuilding architecture. National ownership of that architecture, however, remains paramount.
Multidimensional peacekeeping missions have the combined presence of political, military, technical and other specialized expertise and skill sets. Peacebuilding components are intrinsic in such peacekeeping missions, which present a comparative advantage at the onset of a mission’s deployment.
Peacekeeping missions are enablers that provide assistance at critical moments in the aftermath of conflict and bring expertise in the form of security sector reform, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, the rule of law, human rights, electoral assistance and other civilian affairs. Regular and joint consultations and assessments by the peacekeeping mission and the host Government during the security phase are critical in edging towards or determining the transition to a peacebuilding phase.
The Secretary-General’s 2009 report on peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict (S/2009/304) is instructive in providing a broad framework that highlights five recurring priorities for United Nations engagement in peacebuilding. The first is the delivery of basic safety and security for citizens; secondly, inclusive political processes; thirdly, the provision of basic services; fourthly, the restoration of core Government functions; and, fifthly, economic revitalization.
In that regard, we have witnessed the value of strong national ownership and leadership in the formulation of peacebuilding priorities in the cases of the Timor- Leste, Liberia and the United Nations Mission in South Sudan.
For multidimensional peacekeeping missions to be truly effective, mandate reviews must be informed by periodic and focused reviews contained in the reports of the Secretary-General. The views of all the relevant stakeholders in the field, including those of the host country, must be included in such reports. The views of the troop-contributing countries in that regard, together with those of the Secretariat and the Security Council, are imperative. In that way, the host country’s needs can influence United Nations supply on the peacebuilding front and on the reconstruction phase.
Finally, my delegation wishes to acknowledge the contributions made by the thousands of men and women deployed by our respective countries to serve under the United Nations flag in dealing with very dangerous and complex situations around the world. We wish, in that regard, to pay special homage to those who have fallen in the cause of the noble endeavour to make the world a safe and secure place.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Indonesia.
Mr. Percaya (Indonesia): Thank you, Mr. President, for convening this important open debate, as well as for your useful concept paper (S/2013/4, annex), which reflects many of the vital challenges and accomplishments of United Nations peacekeeping. We also highly appreciate the remarks of the Secretary- General.
My delegation associates itself with the statement delivered by the representative of Egypt on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Indonesia concurs with the observation in the President’s non-paper that modern-day peacekeeping has progressively evolved and adapted itself to changing demands and circumstances. We particularly welcome the note’s focus on the mutually reinforcing peacekeeping–peacebuilding nexus.
As Blue Helmets are entrusted with more complex and multidimensional mandates, all peacekeeping stakeholders, namely, the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Secretariat and troop-providing and host countries, should constantly make efforts so that the missions are supported adequately and meet their objectives effectively.
We are confident that today’s debate and resolution 2086 (2013), adopted earlier, will further the Council’s critical work, along with that of stakeholders, on strengthening United Nations peacekeeping.
As a unique global partnership, United Nations peacekeeping endures as a tremendously potent and cost- effective tool in saving humankind from conflict and instability. We must do everything that we can to enable it to maximize its effect. That requires that the various components of United Nations peacekeeping — military, police and civilian — work together closely and unite in a sense of common purpose. That also requires that, in the face of understandable overlap between the dynamic boundaries of peacekeeping, peacemaking, peace-enforcement, peacebuilding and development, the United Nations and its partners are always ready with responsive, comprehensive and properly supported strategies to foster peace with both immediate and longer-term measures, guided by the needs and priorities of affected communities.
The wide-ranging nature and scope of the challenge necessitates that explicitly clear guidelines are provided to Blue Helmets, with the required equipment, training and resources. While United Nations peacekeeping operations are deployed, in principle, to support the implementation of a ceasefire or peace agreement, their active role in peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding in many cases is inevitable.
In his 2009 report on peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict (S/2009/304), the Secretary-General pointed to the unprecedented demands on leadership capacity by the United Nations, which relate, among other things, to the number, size and complexity of peacekeeping missions, which have expanded dramatically in recent years. In that regard, Indonesia commends the increased focus by the Council on the peacekeeping/peacebuilding nexus over the past two years and welcomes the Council’s various pronouncements on including peacebuilding elements in peacekeeping mandates, as appropriate, along with the emphasis on national ownership. We also support the Council’s commitment to continuing to improve its reflection on early peacebuilding tasks related to institution-building. Strengthening core national capacities is essential to laying foundations for sustainable development and peace.
The General Assembly has also underscored the importance of supporting national civilian capacity development and institution-building, including through peacekeeping operations in accordance with their mandates. While peacekeepers undertake many important peacebuilding and other multidimensional tasks, we should also utilize the principle of comparative advantage to achieve best outcomes, in particular with respect to highly specialized and longer-term tasks. Certain specialized civilian tasks need civilian experts with specific experiences and skills.
The approach to multidimensional peacekeeping should therefore reflect developments that are taking place under the United Nations civilian capacity review along with the work being carried out by the Peacebuilding Commission. Other United Nations entities are also conducting some very useful programmes on development and peacebuilding, and we need to promote an integrated and complementary approach. We strongly support the call by the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations in its 2012 report on the importance of ensuring coherence among peacemaking, peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development.
For Indonesia, peacekeeping is an important element in its foreign policy as well as an integral part of its constitutional mandate. Indonesia’s participation in United Nations peacekeeping goes back as far as 1956. We are currently participating in six United Nations peacekeeping missions, and our Garuda Contingent has also been working on critical peacebuildingrelated tasks. We aim to increase our contribution and participation in United Nations peacekeeping.
Finally, let me reiterate that peacekeeping alone is not sufficient. A comprehensive approach that addresses root causes, inclusive political processes, peacemaking, development and strong national institutions is necessary for sustainable peace. We should all work together to ensure the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations and help to put in place and bolster a responsive multidimensional framework that supports peacekeeping.
The President: I now give the floor to His Excellency Mr. Thomas Mayr-Harting, Head of the Delegation of the European Union to the United Nations.
Mr. Mayr-Harting: I have the honour to speak on behalf of the European Union and its member States. The acceding country Croatia; the candidate countries Turkey, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Iceland and Serbia; the countries of the Stabilization and Association Process and potential candidates Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina; as well as Ukraine, the Republic of Moldova, Armenia and Georgia, align themselves with this statement.
We welcome the initiative of the Pakistani presidency to hold today’s open debate on United Nations peacekeeping. The debate is also an expression of the traditionally strong commitment of Pakistan to United Nations peacekeeping. We welcome the multidimensional nature of peacekeeping, focusing in particular on the important linkages between peacekeeping and peacebuilding. Let me also thank the Secretary-General for his briefing, as well as to note with satisfaction the adoption of resolution 2086 (2013).
Peacekeeping is the flagship activity of the United Nations and is therefore a crucial tool paving way for the longer-term stability and development of countries emerging from a crisis. The important work that all actors are doing in partnership within the United Nations represents a tremendous effort that may not always be given due recognition. Recognizing the demanding conditions in which peacekeepers carry out their work, we deeply appreciate the sacrifices they make. Indeed, I would like to express our deep appreciation and respect for those who have lost their lives in line of duty.
The European Union and its member States make an important contribution to United Nations peacekeeping, and we have a great interest in making United Nations peacekeeping even more efficient. Welcoming the increased attention given to the role of regional organizations in peacekeeping, the European Union will continue to look for ways to enhance its own support for United Nations peacekeeping. As a recent example, we were pleased to be able to provide timely and useful support for the rapid setting up of the United Nations Supervision Mission in the Syrian Arab Republic. We stand ready to act in a similar fashion in the future.
The next session of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations is approaching, and we have a keen interest in ensuring that that forum can continue to provide relevant and meaningful consensus-based guidance on peacekeeping. We must make the Special Committee’s report more focused and ensure the timely implementation of its recommendations. That is all the more important in the times of austerity, when we need to optimize the use of scarce resources.
As the Secretary-General has stated, peacekeepers are peacebuilders, and they must seize the window of opportunity in the immediate aftermath of a conflict. They are the first to set priorities, they have a unique mix of capabilities and they have to get it right from the very start.
The representative of Indonesia referred to the nexus between peacekeeping and peacebuilding, which has been examined closely in recent years. The European Union and its member States welcome the Department of Peacekeeping Operations/Department of Field Support strategy on that topic, and we encourage the further development and updating of the strategy, as well as planning and carrying out effective training and exercises to enhance its implementation.
Recently, the report of the Secretary-General on peacebuilding in the aftermath of conflict (S/2012/746) addressed the challenge of that nexus as well, by stressing inclusivity and institution-building, in which peacekeeping operations have an important role to play with a view to building more resilient States and sustainable peace. Institution-building in the fields of security and justice, for instance, is key to the capacity of the host State to move on. In that context, the strengthening of the rule of law should be an overarching objective.
In a similar vein, the civilian capacity initiative promotes enhancing the ability of peacekeeping operations to contribute to that aim by expanding the pool of relevant civilian experts suitable for peacekeeping operations in a post-conflict situation.
Equally, the United Nations system-wide policy on transitions demonstrates the close links those different activities have, with the aim of producing a positive outcome in post-crisis situations.
All of the recent reports and initiatives I have mentioned point in the same direction: the key for ensuring positive sustainable development is to start as early as possible and in as comprehensive manner as needed. In view of the longer-term perspective, a coordinated strategic assessment to ensure an integrated and coherent approach to post-conflict peacebuilding and sustainable peace is a crucial starting point. Concerted action from a wide range of interested stakeholders is required in order to ensure mutually reinforcing activities.
Peacekeeping operations need to be planned and conducted in such a manner as to facilitate post-conflict peacebuilding and progress towards sustainable peace and development. Peacekeeping operations with multidimensional tasks and mandates should incorporate a peacebuilding perspective. The implementation of those activities requires close coordination among peacekeeping operations and United Nations country teams and developments actors. Peacekeeping operations have a role to play in both supporting critical tasks and enabling others, through providing support for countries, in developing critical peacebuilding priorities and strategies, creating an enabling environment in which national and international actors can undertake their efforts, and by implementing certain early peacebuilding tasks themselves.
Taking into account the contribution of various actors and the key principle of national ownership and priorities, an integrated approach to early peacebuilding is successful if every actor is clear as to their contribution. That will make the comparative advantage and the added value of each actor clearer. Despite good progress, there continues to be a need to identify additional competencies and to further clarify everyone’s role and responsibility.
Ensuring coordination and coherence is key. That necessitates system-wide support within the United Nations. There has certainly been further progress in that respect, but the efforts to enhance coordination need to continue, including as regards the Peacebuilding Commission, where coordination with other United Nations bodies, in particular the Security Council, should be further improved.
Partnerships are increasingly important across the board. United Nations agencies, funds and programmes and their growing link with regional and subregional organizations and international financial institutions need to explore partnership opportunities that support peacekeeping operations in their peacebuilding tasks. The Peacebuilding Fund is an integral part of the United Nations peacebuilding structure. It is a nimble funding mechanism that is also very relevant for the peacebuilding tasks within peacekeeping operations.
With respect to future models of cooperation, the civilian capacity initiative provides a good example. As the report of the Secretary-General on civilian capacity in the aftermath of conflict (S/2012/645) states, the initiative will apply across the various responses of the United Nations system. We encourage the elements of the United Nations system to continue to work together in finding optimal ways to be more responsive and innovative in post-conflict situations.
Countries emerging from a post-conflict situation continue to run the risk of a recurrence of armed conflict. Peacekeeping operations have an important role to play in preventing that. We need to do our utmost to prevent such a development.
Peacekeeping operations also set the scene for initiatives in institution-building. It is therefore important to optimize the way peacekeeping operations contribute to early peacebuilding and State-building, guaranteeing a comprehensive start from the beginning and a smooth transition to greater stability.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of India.
Mr. Hardeep Singh Puri (India): At the outset, let me thank you, Mr. President, for organizing this debate on the important subject of peacekeeping and its crucial role in building peace in post-conflict situations.
India is proud to have been associated with United Nations peacekeeping from its very inception. As a country that has contributed to virtually every United Nations peacekeeping operation in the past six decades — more than 100,000 peacekeepers in all — we have an abiding interest in United Nations peacekeeping. During our presidency of the Security Council in August 2011, we organized a debate on United Nations peacekeeping (see S/PV.6603). Even
today, India is one of the largest contributors to major peacekeeping missions, and we remain committed to that global enterprise.
I also wish to convey our deep appreciation to the Secretary-General for his presence here today and for his useful briefing on the subject.
Peacekeeping has been a critical activity of the United Nations in maintaining international peace and security. Its collaborative character infuses it with a unique legitimacy that defines its strength. The core values of United Nations peacekeeping explain its enduring relevance. The principles of consent, impartiality and the non-use of force except in self- defence and in defence of the mandate have all outlived the many transitions that peacekeeping has witnessed, from the truce-supervision missions of yesteryear to the multidimensional mandates of today. Today’s debate on the multidimensional nature of peacekeeping underscores in ample measure how the nature of peacekeeping has evolved.
Peacekeeping is often deliberated as a stand-alone exercise, rather than as a contributory endeavour that imparts strength to the larger peace enterprise. That reflects the substance of its currency. In order for peace to be sustainable, enduring and lasting, it is imperative that all components of the comprehensive peace enterprise contribute to achieving peace.
In that regard, I would like to draw the Security Council’s attention to the presidential statement (S/PRST/2011/17) issued in August 2011, which called for meaningful engagement with the troop-contributing countries and the inclusion of field expertise and experience in peacebuilding strategies and in the drafting of mission mandates.
The nature of mandates will continue to shape the practice of peacekeeping. My delegation has often spoken strongly in favour of a tiered and inclusive mandate-making process in order to ensure that mandates are updated, flexible and in tune with the realities on the ground. In-depth consultations with troop-and police-contributing countries should be an integral part of the mandate-generation process. A fair assessment of mandates, with corresponding resources, will inject a sense of realism into expectations with respect to mission objectives and achievements.
Unfortunately, resource allocation has failed to keep pace with mandate expansion, and peacekeeping missions are called upon to do more and more with less and less. That has added to the operational challenges faced by peacekeepers. Missions are overstretched due to shortages of personnel and equipment. The resources provided need to be commensurate with mandates, and efficiency measures should not compromise operational necessities.
A reference was made to the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP). Suffice it to say that the role of UNMOGIP was overtaken by the Simla Agreement of 1972, between India and Pakistan, which was signed by the Heads of the two Governments and ratified by their respective Parliaments. In times of austerity, we need to address the question of whether the resources being spent on UNMOGIP would not be better utilized elsewhere.
Peacekeeping and peacebuilding are two sides of the same coin. Critical peacebuilding tasks such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, security sector reform, the rule of law, basic governance, institution building and support to the democratic process are all premised on peacekeepers’ proactive involvement. Our strategies and approaches therefore should be geared towards capitalizing on those strengths. United Nations peacekeeping in fact makes all of that affordable at a fraction of the cost involved in similar endeavours elsewhere.
Two thirds of the United Nations field presence is comprised of uniformed personnel. They respond to a complex set of challenges in a holistic manner. In that context, we should synergize the keeping of peace and the building of peace. Their mutual complementarities should be harmonized, rather than being zoned as civilian versus military aspects.
Functional necessities should guide us in developing programmatic content and budgetary outlines. The propensity to create new structures, mechanisms and positions that only add additional bureaucratic layers need to be discouraged in the current context.
Partnership is peacekeeping’s central pillar. All stakeholders in the process have a duty to enhance dialogue and mutual understanding. The triangular cooperation framework in that regard offers a viable way to engender and consolidate that partnership.
The representative character of peacekeeping and its reform process is the key to its across-the-board acceptability. It is imperative that the work on that
reform process is not the prerogative of a few, but is representative across the board.
Finally, my delegation is happy that a resolution (resolution 2086 (2013)) has been adopted today that will strengthen the peacekeeping framework.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Germany.
Mr. Wittig (Germany): We welcome Pakistan’s initiative to hold an open debate on United Nations peacekeeping and its multidimensional nature. International peace and security lie at the heart of the United Nations, and peacekeeping is surely the most visible instrument of the United Nations in that regard. It therefore deserves our constant attention.
At the outset, I would like to reiterate Germany’s longstanding support for United Nations peacekeeping. It is our goal to strengthen the United Nations system and the missions on the ground. It is in that spirit that we call for a fresh look on how to overcome current gaps and deficiencies. Close cohesion between mandates and required capacities is crucial for the success of peacekeeping missions. At the same time, we believe that an increased use of modern equipment and technologies is necessary to improve the operational effectiveness of peacekeeping operations.
My country aligns itself with the statement delivered on behalf of the European Union.
I would like to take this opportunity to introduce before the Council an initiative that Germany, together with a number of partners, has developed over recent years. If implemented, the initiative could make a substantial contribution to realizing truly multidimensional United Nations peacekeeping. I am talking about the creation of a group of friends of United Nations police.
Sustainable peace can only be achieved through justice and security and by the re-establishing the rule of law. The police segment of United Nations peacekeeping has proven crucial in assisting host countries in developing critical peacebuilding priorities and strategies. It is also key in national programmes on security sector reform and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration.
United Nations police are mastering their wide-ranging and complex tasks with commitment and professionalism. They need our support and appreciation. Our initiative to establish a group of friends aims at fostering political support for the United Nations police. We want to strengthen the capacity and the impact of United Nations police. Such a group should include all main stakeholders involved in United Nations police missions and facilitate the informal exchange of ideas. It shall create a sense of common purpose and be a place to launch concrete initiatives. It shall provide a bridge between United Nations Headquarters in New York and capitals.
The idea of creating a group of friends of United Nations police was introduced at the October 2012 High- Level Conference on International Police Peacekeeping in the 21st Century, held in Berlin, and has since evolved further. Such a group would be complementary to the existing Strategic Police Advisory Group in order to advance sustained political engagement in support of United Nations police.
We would expect the group of friends to consist of dedicated Member States that are actively engaged and interested in developing United Nations police peacekeeping, as well as partners from the Secretariat. Other key partners and supporters could be invited to join. The constitutive meeting of the group of friends is planned for this spring.
Together, we can further strengthen the role of United Nations peacekeeping, its capacities and its impact on the ground. This is a joint endeavour, and the support of all Member States is key.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Bangladesh.
Mr. Momen (Bangladesh): At the outset, let me commend the leadership of Pakistan in guiding the work of the Council in January 2013. I applaud the hard work of your delegation, Sir, in preparing the informative concept note before us (S/2013/4). We also thank the Secretary-General for his statement delivered this morning.
We align ourselves with the statement made by the representative of Egypt on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement and we welcome today’s adoption of resolution 2086 (2013), on peacekeeping.
We subscribe to the views expressed in the concept note that United Nations peacekeeping operations are more effective and cost efficient compared to other similar operations. Several studies, including by the Rand Corporation, Oxford University economists,
the United States Accountability Office and others testify ot the fact that the United Nations can complete a mission most effectively with lower costs. In fact, it can accomplish a mission at around 12 per cent of the total cost that would be incurred by the United States of America in a unilateral intervention. As members may be aware, the total United Nations peacekeeping budget is less than 0.5 per cent of global military expenditure.
The multidimensional aspect of United Nations peacekeeping demonstrates its commitment to the broader membership and ensures neutrality, greater legitimacy, acceptance and effectiveness. Tats dimension therefore needs to be maintained in the future, while the base of troop-contributing countries (TCCs) is expanded.
With limited resources, United Nations peacekeeping has demonstrated unparalleled success in its past operations. Since its inception, the United Nations has undertaken 67 field missions. Among many other things, those missions have enabled people in dozens of countries to participate in free and fair elections, and helped to disarm more than 400,000 ex-combatants in the past decade alone. Despite the significant achievements, as the Rand Corporation mentions, the Organization continues to exhibit weaknesses in operations, which remain undermanned and under-funded and whose military forces are often sized not on the basis of actual need. It not only challenges the achievement of mandates but also generates potential threats to the safety and security of peacekeepers. We therefore stress that the mandates for peacekeeping missions should be clear, specific, achievable and, most important, adequately funded to achieve their objectives, while ensuring the safety and security of peacekeepers themselves.
Modern peacekeeping mandates go far beyond then traditional roles of truce supervision. Peacekeepers nowadays address both inter-and infra-State conflicts. Missions have become diversified, multidimensional and more complex, engaging military, police and civilian personnel. They provide support to safety and security, political processes, electoral assistance, inclusive dialogue and reconciliation, conflict management, basic services, economic revitalization and core Government functions, among other things. In other words, they are the principal actors in laying the foundations for peacebuilding.
As their mandates are enhanced, so are their needs and requirements. In that context, it is important that TCCs are consulted from the very beginning of a mission until the end of its last stage, especially when decisions are being taken about its mandate, human resources and other requirements.
The concept note has highlighted several issues regarding the integration of peacebuilding tasks in the context of multidimensional peacekeeping. In response, my delegation would like to stress the following points.
First, in the context of multidimensional peacekeeping, the elements of peacebuilding can be incorporated at an early stage. In doing so, the views of the host country, the advice of the Peacebuilding Commission, where appropriate, and the lessons learned and best practices of from TCCs may be requested for determining mission needs. Special emphasis needs to be given to determining force requirements, taking into account their future contribution in peacebuilding efforts.
Secondly, once the requirement are determined, TCCs may be requested to form composite units for deployment, including the military, police and civilian personnel required to address the multidimensional needs of integrated missions. That will allow us to tap the benefits of comparative advantages of experienced peacekeepers. At the same time, that is likely to bridle cost overruns associated with hiring external experts. Similarly, the inclusion of civilian experts in related areas within the composite unit may bring greater harmony and coherence among the various actors in the field as well as cost-effectiveness in the operations.
Thirdly, women represent almost 50 per cent of our total population. Their rights and roles in preventing conflict and rebuilding society cannot be overemphasized. They deserve equal rights in the context of the peace process and nation-building. Unfortunately, they become the principal victims of conflict and, in the recovery process, they are often neglected. We therefore stress that women should be included systematically throughout the entire process in the areas of conflict resolution, mediation and economic recovery, local Government, the rule of law and other related areas of nation-building.
Fourthly, the needs of multidimensional missions are multifaceted. They require trained personnel for addressing issues related to military and police affairs as well as issues of civilian engagement. Therefore, training for peacekeepers should be customized so as to address all those needs through the inclusion of a
unit-based training programme. We are ready to offer our training facilities in Bangladesh, at the Bangladesh Institute of Peace Support Operations Training centre.
Finally, United Nations peacekeeping is a collective endeavour and the pride of the United Nations. Its success is the outcome of the concerted efforts of all stakeholders. Its future success will depend on the forging of such partnerships on the basis of experiences and lessons learned. We look forward to further strengthening those partnerships in all areas of our possible cooperation and contribution.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Japan.
Mr. Nishida (Japan): I would like to begin by expressing my appreciation to His Excellency Jalil Abbas Jilani, Foreign Secretary of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, for his leadership in convening today’s open debate. I would also like to express appreciation to the Secretary-General for his comprehensive and informative briefing, which impressed on us the importance of today’s discussion.
Allow me, before I delve into today’s topic, to echo the strong condemnation expressed by the Security Council in its press statement on the terrorist attack in In Amenas, Algeria, which has affected people of many nationalities, including some from my own country, and has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries. We express our deep sympathy and sincere condolences for the victims of the attack and to their families. The perpetrators of such heinous acts must be brought to justice. Japan believes that terrorism in all its forms and manifestations constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security, and that any acts of terrorism are criminal and unjustifiable. I should like to reiterate Japan’s strong determination to combat all forms of terrorism.
Mr. President, Japan welcomes your initiative of introducing a new resolution highlighting the multidimensional nature of United Nations peacekeeping operations. We agree that it plays a critical role in the maintenance of international peace and security, preventing and containing conflicts, building peace in post-conflict situations and providing sustainable peace and development. With the purpose of further improvements and reflection on the issue, I would like to share the following three observations with the Council.
First, I would like to draw the Council’s attention to the history of the Japanese contribution to peacekeeping operations. In its 20-year history in that respect, Japan has proactively taken an early peacebuilding role. In Timor-Leste, Japan delivered engineering, police capacity-building and electoral support, which contributed to building a foundation for the country’s economic development. Last month, that South- East Asian nation graduated from the peacekeeping operation, well on its way to future prosperity. In Haiti, the Japanese Self-Defense Forces’ engineers proactively contributed to the country’s national recovery efforts and planted the seeds for its future development. In South Sudan, Japanese engineering units are now supporting nation-building efforts for the youngest nation in the world. By sharing lessons learned from its premium experiences as an early peacebuilder, Japan would like to invigorate the discussion and the consideration of further improvements related to this issue.
Secondly, peacekeeping missions have evolved and at the same time struggled to address the emerging challenges of the twenty-first century. In the midst of their evolutionary process, missions are now required to be capable of meeting specific needs and handling complex situations for the successful delivery of their multidimensional functions. To that end, each mission should be launched and operated based on broader support from Member States, now more than ever. The Security Council, the supreme decision-making authority on the establishment of missions, has remained without any substantial changes to its composition or decision-making process for more than six decades. Japan believes that the time when changes are made to such decision-making mechanisms is the time when peacekeeping operations will start to exercise their full potential to respond to the expectations of a new era.
Thirdly, Japan has also actively engaged in the discussion of the peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development nexus in the context of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC). For example, as the Chair of the Commission’s working group on lessons learned, Japan organized a meeting in December to clarify the role played by the PBC vis-à-vis the Security Council while the country on the agenda of the PBC is undergoing a United Nations mission transition. In order for peacekeeping efforts to generate a long-term impact, enhanced cooperation between the Security Council, the Peacebuilding Commission and other development actors is essential. Japan remains committed to promoting such interactions.
In closing, Japan would like to express its heartfelt appreciation to all peacekeepers for their solid contribution, made through daily hard work, even in the midst of severe situations on the ground. At the same time, Japan would like to express its deepest condolences in connection with those peacekeepers who have made the ultimate sacrifice in the line of duty, and strongly condemns attacks targeting United Nations peacekeepers. Japan will do its best to work towards the achievement of international peace and security, with full respect for the safety and security of personnel.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Chile.
Mr. Errázuriz (Chile) (spoke in Spanish): May I begin, Sir, by congratulating Pakistan on its assumption of the presidency of the Security Council for the month of January and commending the presence here this morning of Pakistan’s Foreign Secretary. I should like also to thank the Secretary-General for his statement.
My delegation endorses the statement made by the Permanent Representative of the Arab Republic of Egypt, Ambassador Khalil, on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
This debate provides us with yet another opportunity to look into an important tool in the architecture for the maintenance of international peace and security: peacekeeping operations. Those operations, in a changing international situation that is increasingly complex, have had to adapt and now function in a different way to how they were originally conceived. Thus, beginning in the late 1980s, the traditional model was supplanted by an increasingly multidimensional kind of operation with civilian, military, political, rule of law, human rights, humanitarian aid, reconstruction, gender and civilian protection components, among others. Whatever its nature, a peacekeeping operation must be undertaken pursuant to the guiding principles of consent of the parties; impartiality; use of force only in self-defence or in defending the mandate; and unswerving compliance with the Charter of the United Nations.
The multidimensional nature of peacekeeping operations requires clear and appropriate guidelines that bolster the operational dimension and ensure an appropriate organizational structure, logistical and financial resources, and appropriately trained staff. My delegation believes that the relation between peacekeeping and peacebuilding is clear. They form two sides of the same process proceeding in parallel. We consider it essential that the mandates of the various peacekeeping operations not only have clear, precise and feasible instructions, but also a strategic vision for entry, transition and exit that allows appropriate use of resources to ensure the safety of the members and is based on a withdrawal strategy.
These increased efforts call for systematic joint efforts among all actors involved in establishing and implementing a peacekeeping operation. To succeed, they must also be undertaken in close coordination with the national authorities in order to meet local needs and interests and ensure national ownership of the process. We endorse those mechanisms that ensure communications among the Security Council, troop- and police-contributing countries and the Peacebuilding Commission. We urge all to establish the mechanisms necessary to ensure prompt implementation of the decisions of the Security Council.
We recognize the role played by women in preventing and resolving conflicts, and appreciate the inclusion of the gender dimension in mandates. Further work is necessary in that regard to ensure women’s full participation in peacekeeping, peacebuilding and security issues. In that context, we also draw attention to the potential role of regional entities, given their successful past experiences in Africa.
Active collaboration and communication among the receiving country, the Security Council, the Secretariat and Member States are fundamental to understanding the reality on the ground and the problems and expectations of the local population. Coordination of those factors will ensure improved decisions and support for the mission. Only insofar as peacekeeping operations respond to the desires and aspirations of the local population will it be possible to guarantee the relevance and continuity of that important international instrument.
My delegation welcomes resolution 2086 (2013), unanimously adopted today, which follows the path of the ideas outlined earlier. Lastly, my delegation pays tribute to those who have given their lives in pursuit of the noble cause of peace and peacekeeping.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Slovakia.
Mr. Ružička (Slovakia): Slovakia welcomes the opportunity to speak in this open debate on United Nations peacekeeping, with a focus on the nexus between peacekeeping and peacebuilding. We align ourselves with the position presented earlier today by the observer of the European Union. In addition, let me make a few remarks from the point of view of the Slovak Republic. We fully support the idea that peacekeepers are essentially early peace builders and we look forward to the discussion today on how to strengthen synergies between peacekeeping and peacebuilding.
It is important to note that the role played by United Nations peacekeeping missions has changed considerably in recent years. That evolution can be seen in particular in the area of justice and security sector reform (SSR). Peacekeepers are now asked to take on a more proactive role and have become peacebuilders. Early stages focus mainly on the stabilization of SSR aspects that are often linked to certain peace agreement clauses. With security restored, as the focus shifts to peacebuilding it is important to ensure that the accountability objective of SSR is not forgotten and is fully taken into account in the country’s reconstruction and development plan.
Slovakia co-chairs the United Nations Group of Friends of Security Sector Reform. Let me share some insights drawn from a series of events on the United Nations approach to SSR that we organized in December 2012. With the support of the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the United Nations Development Programme, we launched the first set of United Nations integrated technical guidance notes on SSR. We also organized a high-level meeting of the Group of Friends of SSR and an expert-level seminar on “The United Nations and SSR: towards the next report of the Secretary-General on SSR”.
Those events provided some key lessons that are of relevance to today’s debate. Notably, in order to support effective multidimensional peacekeeping, there is a need, first, for clarity on strategic priorities across the peacekeeping and peacebuilding continuum; secondly, appropriate capacities to match the needs of peacekeeping missions; and thirdly, effective partnerships based on coordination, cooperation and comparative advantages.
The United Nations integrated technical guidance notes were developed by the United Nations inter-agency Security Sector Reform Task Force. The guidance notes are intended to support field and headquarters practitioners and deal with issues such as democratic governance of the security sector, peace processes and gender responsive security sector reform.
Of particular relevance to today’s debate is the guidance note on United Nations support to national security policy and strategy-making processes. Supporting national processes from the outset of a peacekeeping mission can help national actors to articulate a national strategic vision based on clear priorities that can guide international support through the evolution from peacekeeping to peacebuilding. National security policymaking can thus help to enhance the coherence of international efforts in the area of SSR, support integrated planning within the United Nations system, and enable the allocation of resources in line with national strategic priorities.
The high-level meeting of the Group of Friends of SSR involved presentations from Member States that had organized regional workshops on the United Nations approach to SSR. For example, Indonesia and Slovakia jointly hosted such an event in Jakarta in 2010, entitled “The Role of the United Nations in Multidimensional Peacekeeping Operations and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Towards an Association of Southeast Asian Nations Perspective”. The meeting highlighted the fact that United Nations multidimensional peacekeeping has essentially become “peacebuilding with security guarantees”. Against that background, calls were made for greater complementarity of efforts between peacekeeping and peacebuilding actors. It was noted, however, that this depends largely on resource challenges. There is a need to address issues such as the separate funding of peacekeeping and peacebuilding and the need to consider the interoperability of various funding instruments. On the other hand, efforts are also needed in the area of human resources, notably by enhancing civilian expertise in peacekeeping, in line with the civilian capacity initiative.
Getting the right people into the right posts at the right time is crucial, whether in a civilian, police or military capacity. Thanks to the observations of the Senior Advisory Group (in S/2011/85), we know where gaps are and therefore where to focus our attention to ensure that field missions are staffed appropriately and in a timely fashion to deliver on important Security Council mandates.
SSR is not a separate set of tasks, but rather a process that impacts on and is influenced by many others. That means that training peacekeeping personnel in SSR needs to be fully integrated across missions, incorporating units responsible for different areas and dimensions. Joint SSR training should occur both before deployment and throughout the mandate of a mission as context and linkages evolve.
Lastly, allow me to say that with the multitude of actors on the ground providing assistance, coordination among international and national stakeholders remains as important as ever. It is worth mentioning that one of the key recommendations that emerged from the recent SSR events hosted by Slovakia was the key importance of strengthening partnerships between the United Nations and Member States, regional and subregional organizations and non-State actors involved in SSR. Partnerships should also entail a greater focus on providing support to South-South cooperation in the area of security sector reform and peacekeeping.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Fiji.
Mr. Thomson (Fiji): Allow me to thank you, Mr. President, for convening this open debate on multidimensional peacekeeping. I am pleased to align this statement with that made earlier today by the representative of Egypt on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Given the emphasis on the evolving nature of peacekeeping missions in discussions in various United Nations bodies in recent years, the current discussion is most pertinent. It is particularly appreciated as it allows countries with long traditions of United Nations peacekeeping, such as Fiji, to contribute to the discussion at the United Nations body tasked with creating, implementing and overseeing the mandates of the peacekeeping missions. We stand ever ready to serve the noble purpose of maintaining international peace and security.
Successive reports of the Secretary-General on peacekeeping have highlighted the unprecedented scale in terms of configuration and demand. Concepts relating to peacekeeping have evolved, with a more concerted effort in recent years on the United Nations community’s responsibility to protect in situations of conflict affecting international peace and security.
Work by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the Department of Field Services on peacebuilding strategies for peacekeepers, as well as the guidance given by the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations on strategies for complex peacekeeping operations and on peacebuilding issues, recognize that peacekeeping and peacebuilding are interlinked stages of a process. That process moves regions and countries in conflict from being dependent on the United Nations community for security to taking control of their own development priorities. That has been and continues to be the fundamental principle on which Fiji’s tradition of United Nations peacekeeping has been based — that we are part of a larger process, not an isolated mission that is an end unto itself.
What, then, do today’s conflicts require of a United Nations response? What does multidimensional peacekeeping require of us? Some 65 years of United Nations peacekeeping provide a rich store of experience to learn from, and we must utilize our shared experience to prepare for the future of multidimensional peacekeeping.
From our perspective, a clear understanding of each situation is required, as no two conflict situations are the same. The roots of the conflict — be they ideological, economic or deriving from the lack of adequate State structures to provide for the citizenry — must guide our responses to it. This requires us to be clear in our mandates with regard to exit strategies for peacekeeping missions and transitions to other types of United Nations presences. Planning for handover to national authorities at the end of an effort of the international community, starting with peacekeeping and integrating peacebuilding efforts, must begin at the time of the conception of the mission. That said, the integral role of peacekeepers as early peacebuilders should be acknowledged and incorporated into the training of all peacekeepers. Transition must be coordinated with all stakeholders.
Clear and detailed planning is required to ensure that the peacekeeping-peacebuilding transition is seamless in order to avoid any regression into conflict. That requires the involvement of local communities in trust-building exercises and the involvement of women at all levels of society in remaking their communities. It also involves well-planned and realistic strategies for disarmament, demobilization and reintegration and security sector reform, as well as assistance to national authorities.
Resolution 2086 (2013), adopted in the course of today’s debate, has the unanimous support of all
members of the Security Council. We therefore trust that it will provide a useful reference point in future discussions on mandates of peacekeeping missions and their implementation, as well as guidance for the peacekeeping community as a whole. I take this opportunity to assure the Council that Fiji will continue its proud tradition of United Nations peacekeeping, and that it expects to continue to play a positive role as United Nations peacekeeping evolves.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of the United Republic of Tanzania.
Mr. Manongi (Tanzania): We commend the Pakistani presidency for convening this meeting on a multidimensional approach to peacekeeping.
Over the years, the nature and complexities of conflicts have demanded an evolution of peacekeeping into more complex and multidimensional operations. That requires an ongoing evaluation of their relevance and efficacy. Peacekeeping has always presented and will always present challenges. What distinguishes one approach from another rests on what lessons are learned from past experiences. In that regard, one of the enduring lessons learned in the twentieth century — from Rwanda to Bosnia and Somalia — is that peacekeeping has to be robust and effective. It is therefore not surprising that peacekeepers are today deployed to undertake acutely challenging operations.
Consequently, we subscribe to the view that the idea of only sending troops into areas where there is a peace to keep is a nice theory but a quaint idea. It is an illusion to hope and assume that the mere deployment of a peace operation will engender requisite peace. The current situation in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo reminds us of that truth. To be fair, the United Nations has made remarkable contributions to stability in that country. However, much more remains to be done for the Congolese people, and it is within the reach of the peacekeeping mission there, the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is essential that the Council remain supportive of a more responsive peace operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
What we witnessed in Goma last November illustrates that a robust military presence continues to be critical in peacekeeping operations in order to deter potential spoilers and to reinforce missions’ credibility. In addition, the presence of contingents with the resolve necessary to undertake complex and often dangerous tasks becomes a key determinant of an operation’s success.
The impunity with which rogue and armed militias inflict widespread suffering and loss of life and displace hundreds of thousands of innocent civilians is a stark reminder of the collective resolve we need to sustain and continuously muster. We therefore welcome the Council’s commitment in support of ongoing efforts for peace and stability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In that regard, the Council will find strong partners in the African Union, as well as in the membership of the Southern African Development Community and the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, or, in the case of Mali, the Economic Community of West African States.
It is only proper that, where feasible and meaningful, United Nations and regional institutions should share responsibility for security. Indeed, if cooperation can engender success, the United Nations should not fear losing its overall position in such peace operations.
The multiplicity of actors involved, be they political, humanitarian, military, economic or any positively supportive elements, need to accept that the collective achievement of the goals of peace and security will, at times, require accepting a degree of risks. That may be especially true of the military components of a multidimensional peacekeeping effort. It is therefore imperative that the forces deployed remain capable of demonstrating the collective will and resolve to deter and prevent escalation, especially to protect innocent civilians.
Ultimately, the United Nations must remain worthy of the image that it has fostered over decades of peacekeeping, namely, that of a renewed sense of hope and promise and the chance of a fresh start for people previously shackled by conflict and a lack of good governance.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Uruguay.
Mr. Vidal (Uruguay) (spoke in Spanish): Coming from a country that is highly committed to the United Nations peacekeeping system, I join the representatives who spoke before me in congratulating the delegation of Pakistan on this timely initiative, both in terms of the debate and resolution 2086 (2013), adopted earlier this morning.
Before entering into the core issue of this debate, it seems relevant to us to underscore the importance of those activities that have brought us together today. The topic goes hand in hand not only with greater interaction with troop-and police-contributing countries, which we regularly call for, but also with regard to those of us advocating an improvement in the working methods of the Security Council. More and better dialogue among the Security Council, troop-and police-contributing countries and the Secretariat, while not an end in itself, is essential for the comprehensive interconnection that the system needs to be a reality and, in particular, the increasingly effective implementation of mandates. That is all the more true for multidimensional peacekeeping.
Multidimensional peacekeeping operations must be reliable in order to ensure the lasting transition of States emerging from conflict. Efforts to build lasting peace in a country emerging from conflict require the coordinated action of various actors. Peacekeeping operations play a crucial role and are essential to peacebuilding in order to establish the necessary conditions for other actors to undertake reconstruction and development tasks in support of national authorities and to provide direct cooperation in different areas.
At the same time, we should recall that the catalytic role of peacekeeping personnel in terms of peacebuilding, in particular in the prompt strengthening of peace, has been acknowledged by various bodies within and outside the United Nations system. In that regard, we believe that strengthening the institutional capacity of the host country of a peacekeeping operation must be a priority from the very outset of a multidimensional mission. That is essential to prevent the resumption of a conflict. It is also critical to the more complex tasks of today’s multidimensional missions, such as, for example, the protection of civilians.
One of the greatest challenges to achieving a successful exit from multidimensional missions is to ensure, at the critical time of transition, the necessary continuity in order to avoid losing such hard-won achievements. We all more or less agree that sustained international support must be ensured when a peacekeeping operation ends and, as usually happens, responsibilities are transferred to the relevant national and international actors.
However, ensuring that continuity can be a very difficult task since the existing mechanisms that come into play before the drawdown of a peacekeeping operation are not inevitably as predictable as those related to peacekeeping.
In conclusion, we must underscore the significance of the role of multidimensional peacekeeping operations in supporting institution-building, dialogue, political inclusiveness, reconstruction and the establishment of conditions for the economic and social development of a country emerging from conflict, through a coordinated approach that avoids duplication and that has a sustainable timeframe for transition.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Malaysia.
Mr. Haniff (Malaysia): Allow me to congratulate you, Mr. President, on Pakistan’s assumption of the presidency of the Security Council for the month of January. I am confident that, under your able stewardship, the Council will be able to undertake the task entrusted upon it by the membership in the most productive and effective manner. I would also like to thank the Secretary-General for his statement, which gave us an update on the status of the various peacekeeping missions operating globally.
At this juncture, I also wish to align my statement with that of the Permanent Representative of Egypt, made earlier this morning, on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Today peacekeeping missions have become increasingly complex, since the nature and characteristic of conflicts have changed. Major peacekeeping and peacebuilding challenges remain and many conflict- ridden countries continue to experience instability years after the end of armed conflict, with high levels of relapse into violence. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s statement at the Security Council debate on post-conflict peacebuilding of December 2012 was apt when he stated that the reason for relapse, although it varied among countries, had a common thread, that is, a deficit of trust in the wake of conflict between different political parties and social groups, between the State and society, and between the State and its international partners (see S/PV.6897).
While we have seen positive progress in United Nations peacekeeping efforts through the years, it would be prudent to go back to the basics and to focus more on strengthening partnerships within and between peacekeeping missions. We should refocus our efforts on integrating peacekeeping core capabilities and we should find ways to improve the transition from
peacekeeping to peacebuilding. In that connection, the various actors in peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts cannot continue to work in silos. The Council, in collaboration with the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the Peacebuilding Commission, should find ways to further integrate and to strengthen collaboration among those actors, namely, the military and police components in peacekeeping, civilian actors, civil society and regional organizations.
In pursuit of an integrated approach, Malaysia would encourage the participation of Member States in the online platform CAPMATCH, as established by the Civilian Capacities Team. CAPMATCH, with its providers of training and assistance, will be able to play an important role in support of the successful transition from conflict to governance. In our view, such an integrated approach would further facilitate the transition between peacekeeping and peacebuilding.
A successful transition from the peacekeeping stage to peacebuilding depends very much on building State institutions during the peacekeeping period. A failure to work closely and effectively with national Governments and local actors to ensure the existence of a sustainable institutional architecture at the end of the peacekeeping period might bring back instability to the country concerned. In working towards an effective and sustainable outcome, the focus should be on enhancing State institutions, especially those relating to the judiciary, law and order and economic development. A potentially stable State needs such institutions to form the backbone of its democracy. The United Nations plays a substantial role in ensuring that those institutions are stable at the end of the peacekeeping mandate.
International assistance through quick-impact projects can also be useful as a complement to peacekeeping work done through the United Nations. International development assistance given in coordination with the Peacebuilding Commission, including helping to develop civilian capacity and expertise, can contribute to the successful implementation of such quick-impact projects, which benefit local populations directly. Positive outcomes of such projects encourage local actors to work more closely with the international community in bringing sustainable stability to the country concerned, since they can see the benefit of such collaboration. In that connection, I would suggest that future mandates for peacekeeping missions should include a component of that nature.
In conclusion, I would like to reiterate Malaysia’s firm support for the central role of the United Nations, through the Security Council, in the maintenance of international peace and security. We are mindful of the daunting task that the United Nations faces in keeping the peace in regions of conflict. Its peacekeeping missions can be successful only if close collaboration between the various actors is given priority. Our task does not end with the expiry of the mandate. The United Nations will be remembered fondly by the local populace only if we can bring long-lasting peace and subsequent prosperity to their troubled nations. Together we can succeed.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Cuba.
Mr. León González (Cuba) (spoke in Spanish): We congratulate Pakistan on its initiative in holding this Security Council open debate on peacekeeping operations.
Cuba supports the statement made by the representative of Egypt on behalf of the States members of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Since the 1990s, multidimensional peacekeeping operations have been the rule rather than the exception. With the aim of restoring peace and stability, particularly in regions with internal conflicts, the nature of the mandates of such operations has evolved, as has the complexity of their implementation mechanisms, thus increasing the challenges the United Nations must face. Peacekeeping operations have also become the activities consuming the most resources within the Organization. The current budget for peacekeeping operations has reached a record $8 billion.
Extending the mandates of existing operations and establishing new ones should be done in strict conformity with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, particularly respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of States and non-interference in their internal affairs. Similarly, the basic principles adopted by the General Assembly regarding such operations, such as the consent of the parties, impartiality and the non-use of force except in self-defence, must also be respected.
For more efficient deployment of peacekeeping operations, mandates should have concrete goals and be clearly defined and able to rely on the resources
necessary for their implementation. The Security Council should ensure that troop-contributing countries participate fully and effectively in devising, implementing and renewing mandates, since, for example, they may be able to provide objective assessments of the existing realities on the ground. Those countries should participate as key stakeholders in the policy-and decision-making processes and the deployment of operations.
Cuba believes that a phased approach to establishing mandates would be more effective, and that they should not be adopted until Member States have made firm commitments on the contingents to be deployed and a clear idea of the resources necessary for their deployment exists. Before an operation is approved and deployed, it is essential that it have a clear exit strategy. Peacebuilding activities begun during the early stages of peacekeeping operations are an important tool for helping countries emerging from conflict to develop and strengthen their national sustainable development strategies. Every peacebuilding strategy should be based on national experience and planned in a coherent and integrated manner to enable it to meet the needs of the country in question, in accordance with the principle of national ownership and the priorities established by its authorities.
Establishing new and more complex peacekeeping operations cannot be a substitute for addressing the root causes of conflict. Such operations cannot be an end in themselves, but a temporary measure aimed at creating a security framework enabling the implementation of a long-term sustainable economic and social development strategy. Otherwise, the vicious cycle of new conflicts and operations with high human and material costs can never be overcome.
A significant number of peacekeeping operations — eight, to be exact — include civilian protection as part of their mandates. Cuba reiterates that the primary responsibility for protecting civilians rests with States. Civilian protection cannot be used, under any pretext, to promote regime change, military intervention or any other action contrary to the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations. Guidelines and doctrinal documents drafted by the Secretariat that may have an impact on the way Member States engage in peacekeeping operations must be agreed on beforehand through an intergovernmental negotiation process. It is important to continue to strengthen interaction among host countries of peacekeeping operations, troop-contributing countries, the Secretariat and the Security Council. The efficiency of peacekeeping operations and the credibility of the Organization depend on developing such interaction.
Concerning the Secretariat’s proposal to introduce modern technologies and to use unmanned aerial systems as an experiment in some operations, Cuba considers that, given its implications, this issue should be thoroughly discussed in the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations. The potential use of such technology should in no way affect the basic principles of peacekeeping operations.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Nepal.
Mrs. Adhikari (Nepal): At the outset, I would like to congratulate you, Mr. President, and your country, Pakistan, on presiding over the Security Council for the month of January. It is indeed a commendable initiative of your presidency of the Council to bring this subject matter to the fore. I should also like to thank the Secretary-General, His Excellency Mr. Ban Ki-moon, for his insightful remarks. My delegation aligns itself with the statement made by the representative of the Arab Republic of Egypt on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Peacekeeping has constantly evolved into a major United Nations activity and a vital tool for the maintenance of international peace and security. Increased demand placed on the United Nations to respond to growing and diverse situations is testimony to the growing confidence reposed in the world body as a credible multilateral organization responsible for addressing the critical challenges to international peace and security.
At present, peacekeeping operations have gone well beyond their traditional modes of operation. Supporting peace and security, providing security guarantees, including the protection of civilians, and political and peacebuilding support to assist countries’ transition to peace have been the principal tasks assigned to peacekeeping missions. Many of the important tasks pertaining to peacebuilding and nation-building processes are directly linked with democracy, governance, human rights, the rule of law and development.
Peacekeeping demands a multidimensional approach and multiple involvements of stakeholders in a coherent and coordinated manner. It also requires a broader, holistic strategy that synergizes peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts to address the interlinked issues of security and development in a comprehensive and holistic manner. It is therefore imperative to have close coordination between the General Assembly and the Security Council, and the meaningful engagement and involvement of the troop-and police-contributing countries for the success of any United Nations mission. Country leadership and ownership can play a crucial role in cultivating hope and fostering confidence among people in conflict-ridden places.
As one of the leaing troop-contributing countries, Nepal attaches great importance to United Nations peacekeeping, in line with its foreign policy objectives. Nepal’s association with United Nations peacekeeping is consistent and long-standing. Since 1958, Nepal has continuously contributed peacekeepers for the maintenance of international peace and security under the aegis of the United Nations. Nepalese peacekeepers have served in the most challenging missions, and more than 60 Nepalese peacekeepers have sacrificed their lives in the line of duty.
Based on the experiences gained along the evolving track of peacekeeping, from truce monitoring to peace enforcement and peacebuilding, and looking at the challenges ahead, my delegation emphasizes that the following key elements should receive proper attention if United Nations peacekeeping is to be a truly successful enterprise, without compromising the fundamental tenets of inter-State relationships.
The Security Council must be guided by unity of purpose and mobilize its entire political capital, based on merit and principle, to ensure that a coherent strategic framework is in place to achieve the desired objectives, which must be explicitly articulated. Peacekeeping should be guided by an integrated three-pronged strategy. It has to stabilize the security situation, support the national political process and ensure economic regeneration. All three pillars need to be strengthened in a holistic manner from the very beginning.
A framework for consultation with troop- contributing and police-contributing countries on the mandating process should be substantive, institutionalized and structured in terms of content and timing. The comprehensive and continuous involvement of troop-contributing and police-contributing countries in all stages of United Nations peacekeeping is essential to make the operations effective and successful.
Civilian capacity in diverse fields is in increasing demand in the new generation of peacekeeping operations. We should strengthen the capacity of the United Nations to respond to such demands with an inclusive approach shared by all. The strong provision of necessary resources and effective arrangements for enablers are key to rapid deployment, as well as to the enhancement of operational capacity.
Peacekeepers should be given clear guidance and strong and clear-cut rules of engagement for the effective implementation of the tasks shared. It is essential to ensure the due accountability of all stakeholders to the mandate of the mission. A pragmatic training strategy is essential to conducting mission-oriented pre-deployment training for the troops, police, commanders and staff of all troop-and police-contributing countries and to ensuring quality service in the field.
Effective command and leadership in the field are critical, and in this context my delegation underscores that troop-contributing countries should be provided with opportunities in leadership positions commensurate with their contribution. The morale and dignity of peacekeepers must be kept high at all times through appropriate incentive structures. It is also important that claims in respect of death and disabilities be expeditiously cleared. Finally, the safety and security of United Nations peacekeepers must be given high attention.
In conclusion, my delegation reiterates its profound commitment to United Nations peacekeeping and assures you, Sir, of its continued participation in United Nations peacekeeping missions for the sake of a secure and stable future for all.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Ireland.
Ms. Anderson (Ireland): A written version of my statement is being circulated, and I will deliver a slightly abbreviated version so as to respect the time constraints.
I welcome the initiative that Pakistan has taken in scheduling this open debate on United Nations peacekeeping. Indeed, for such a crucial and iconic
part of the United Nation’s work — Blue Helmets are instantly recognized the world over — the Council would undoubtedly benefit from scheduling such debates more frequently.
Ireland is one of the staunchest supporters of United Nations peacekeeping, with our Defence Forces participating continuously in United Nations peace operations since their first deployment 55 years ago. We are also among the top 10 donors to the Peacebuilding Fund. We are therefore keenly interested in the evolving interlinkages between peacekeeping and peacebuilding. I would like today to touch briefly on four points.
My first point concerns sustainability. Paragraph 1 of resolution 2086 (2013), adopted earlier today, refers to peacekeeping contributing to “a comprehensive strategy for durable peace and security”. There are at least two critical aspects to ensuring such durability or sustainability. First, peacebuilding tasks must be undertaken by peacekeepers in a coordinated and coherent manner within an integrated United Nations framework. Secondly, they must support national strategic priorities and planning.
The question of how quick-impact projects can contribute more effectively to peacebuilding is of relevance here. From the many such projects delivered over the years by the Irish Defence Forces, we have learned one key lesson. While maintaining the flexibility and responsiveness characteristic of these projects, efforts to better coordinate and integrate them into broader frameworks greatly enhance their sustainability, and thereby their impact.
My second point concerns realism. We must do more to engender a sense of realism. Oscar Wilde famously wrote: “I can resist anything except temptation”. Over time, the temptation before this Council has been to add, paragraph by paragraph in mandate resolutions, more and broader objectives. No one objects to these objectives, but missions — even modern multidimensional operations — struggle to deliver them as an entire set, not least because they do not always receive a proportionate increase in resources or clear guidance as to what the real priorities are. As a United Nations community, it is important that we either match our expectations of missions with resources, or alternatively we should temper our ambitions. It is wishful thinking, and even somewhat hypocritical, to try to have it both ways.
In standing back and looking at the peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities currently undertaken by the United Nations, we must also ask ourselves whether we, collectively, are continuing disproportionately to focus on the symptoms of conflict at the expense of addressing the root causes. It is a truism that preventing conflict is far more cost-effective than managing crises, yet we continue to pour resources into the latter.
Perhaps a paradigm shift is needed. Rather than saddling peacekeeping missions with more and more responsibilities, we should instead be thinking about enhancing political peacebuilding missions, separate missions, or separate arms within existing missions. But this is a larger debate for another day.
My third point concerns the role of regional organizations. Ireland has direct experience of the positive contribution that regional organizations can make to peacekeeping and peacebuilding. We have led initiatives to improve cooperation between the United Nations and the European Union in relation to peace operations and have given financial support to the expansion of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations Liaison Office in Brussels. In the written version of my statement, I set out in some detail how Ireland is utilizing its current presidency of the Council of the European Union as an opportunity to drive efforts to further enhance this European Union/ United Nations cooperation. I also make the point that more prominence could be given to non-United Nations partners, including regional organizations, in the United Nations lessons-learned processes.
The fourth point concerns gender. There is a crucial element common to peacekeeping and peacebuilding that is conspicuous by its absence in the concept note for today’s debate (S/2013/4, annex). Perhaps the single most transformative step towards ensuring the success of peacekeepers as early peacebuilders would be the deployment of more women on missions. If deployed peacekeeping missions were to reach out to populations in more traditional societies, the deployment of more women would act as a multiplier of peacebuilding potential.
This is a difficult challenge for all troop contributors, no less for Ireland than for any other Member of the United Nations. The Irish Defence Forces ensure that its personnel receive tailored predeployment training in the human rights of women and minorities, cultural awareness and codes of conduct and behaviour. We
also fund and participate in a gender perspective pilot programme in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon. But there is an important point to be made. If we are serious about achieving the current targets for women in peacekeeping, we have to think realistically about finding the necessary incentives and innovative ways to advance towards these targets.
I would conclude by acknowledging the sacrifices made by peacekeepers seeking to sustain and build peace in some of the most difficult places on Earth. In the past year, 111 peacekeepers were killed in carrying out their duty. It is our duty here in New York to ensure that the work of those who run such risks makes the maximum possible difference.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Thailand.
Mr. Sabyeroop (Thailand): At the outset, I should like to express my delegation’s sincere appreciation to you, Mr. President, for convening this important debate on the topic of United Nations peacekeeping. I also thank you for the concept paper provided to assist our discussions today (S/2013/4, annex). I thank the Secretary-General for his remarks earlier this morning and would like to align my statement with the statement delivered earlier by the Permanent Representative of Egypt on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
Since the first United Nations peacekeeping mission deployed more than 60 years ago, we have seen time and time again how critical and pivotal peacekeeping has been to the maintenance of international peace and security. And as peacekeeping has evolved to keep up with the changing landscape of conflict and diplomacy, we have increasingly realized that modern-day peacekeeping can and should also play a meaningful role in the process of conflict prevention, peacebuilding and sustainable development. Peacekeeping missions can and must assist in creating an enabling environment to help countries establish the foundations of peace, reduce the risk of backsliding into conflict, and establish conditions for recovery and long-term, sustainable development.
The international community must continue to strive in this direction to enable peacekeeping missions to continue to play and enhance their meaningful role. We have already seen what has worked in this respect and where we believe we should focus more of our efforts.
First and foremost, peacekeeping missions must be conducted in accordance with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations and relevant Security Council resolutions. They must also adhere to the three basic principles of United Nations peacekeeping operations, namely, consent of the parties, impartiality and the non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate. Peacekeeping operations must also respect the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-intervention in matters within the domestic jurisdiction of States. My delegation wishes to stress the importance of providing clearly defined mandates, a unified line of command, and an efficient use of existing resources.
Secondly, we see the need to explore further the concept of peacekeepers as early peacebuilders. As the resolution adopted today rightly points out,
“while primary responsibility for successful peacebuilding lies with governments and relevant national actors, multidimensional peacekeeping missions bring comparative advantages in early peacebuilding” (resolution 2086 (2013), para. 9).
My delegation fully supports this point. We must strive for the early formulation of integrated and coherent approaches to post-conflict development, based on host-country priorities, through dialogue and close cooperation. In this regard, troop-and police-contributing countries must also be included in the dialogue at every stage of peacekeeping operations, particularly at the early stages of mandate drafting, where we feel that they can contribute experiences and lessons learned in the field.
My delegation firmly believes that the promotion and protection of the interconnected issues of peace and security, development and human rights provide for long-term solutions, not only for conflict resolution but also for preventing conflicts from arising altogether. Guided by these principles, Thailand’s peacekeepers in Timor-Leste, Haiti, Darfur and the Gulf of Aden have made it a point to also assist in local and community development, sharing experiences and best practices in agriculture, health and water resource management with local villagers.
Thailand is continually adapting and strengthening its peacekeeping roles and capacities to best suit current developments in peacekeeping and field requirements, in line with the mandate of each United Nations mission. Presently, we are considering the participation
of small numbers of specialized troops — such as army engineers, medical units and female officer units — in peacekeeping missions. They are trained to understand the unique situation of post-conflict populations, to fully respect different cultures and beliefs and to serve as consultants, engineers and friends.
(spoke in French)
My delegation also welcomes the reiteration in the resolution of the importance of the gender dimension in peacekeeping, in particular with regard to promoting the participation of women in conflict prevention, conflict resolution and peacebuilding. We highly appreciate the Secretary-General’s call for stronger action to meet the challenges to integrating women at all levels and within the United Nations structure itself.
For its part, in September 2012 Thailand established a subcommittee on women and the promotion of peace and security under the National Committee on the Policy and Strategy for the Advancement of Women. Thailand has always attached great importance to supporting the role and impact of women peacekeepers in the field. However, through the creation of this national mechanism and the recently established National Women’s Development Fund, we have focused greater attention on formal commitments to empowering Thai women and on further developing our capacities and contributions in this regard.
Coherence and coordination at all levels are critical. Troop-and police-contributing countries need to understand how to continue to train our own peacekeepers in the most appropriate manner. It is therefore critical to enable our peacekeepers in this way to continue to play increasingly meaningful roles towards the ultimate goal of helping to create the pillars and foundations of sustainable development in conflict- affected States.
We wish to see the further strengthening of cooperation and consultations among troop-contributing and police-contributing countries, the Council, the Secretariat and all relevant United Nations agencies in more open and frequent consultation processes. I also assure the Council of my delegation’s readiness to continue to engage in any future deliberations on peacekeeping missions and activities.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of the Ukraine.
Mr. Sergeyev (Ukraine): Let me thank you, Mr. President, for holding this important debate. The choice of today’s theme came quite naturally for Pakistan as a top contributor of troops to United Nations operations. I should like to join previous speakers in commending the extraordinary role of your country in this sphere and in praising your delegation for its comprehensive and thought-provoking concept note (S/2013/4, annex). Our appreciation also goes to the Secretary-General for his insight into today’s topic.
While Ukraine aligns itself with the statement made by observer of the European Union, I find it pertinent to make a few brief points in my national capacity.
From its inception 65 years ago, United Nations peacekeeping has come a long way, evolving and adapting to the ever-changing environment at every juncture on this road. What we have now is an increasingly complex enterprise embracing multiple dimensions, with peacekeeping missions greatly varying in nature, scope and size. At the time of the first United Nations deployment, it could have hardly been envisaged that peacekeeping would now cover all five recurring peacebuilding priorities, ranging from security to economic revitalization.
It is therefore of the utmost importance that peacebuilding challenges be factored by all stakeholders intointegratedstrategicassessmentandmissionplanning processes in order to ensure a coherence of mutually reinforcing activities. Equally, peacebuilding mandates assigned to complex peacekeeping operations — such as support for security sector reform; disarmament, demobilization and reintegration; national political processes, electoral assistance and others — have to be as detailed, credible and achievable as possible, and must tailor relevant peacekeeping operations to unique local realities and needs.
In this light, we fully support resolution 2086 (2013), adopted by the Security Council today. It broadly incorporates Ukraine’s vision of how further to clarify the evolving nexus between peacekeeping and peacebuilding. We particularly welcome the Council’s commitment to better integrating early peacebuilding tasks into the mandates of peacekeeping operations; to making sure that these mandates are matched by appropriate resources; to further enhancing cooperation and consultations with troop-and police-contributing countries; and to strengthening United Nations field security arrangements so as to improve the safety and security of Blue Helmets. Ukraine believes that the
implementation of today’s resolution will contribute to progress on taking forward a comprehensive strategy for durable peace and security.
A concept at the heart of today’s debate — that of multiple dimensions — fully applies to Ukraine’s contribution to United Nations efforts to maintain international peace and security. Our share in the global partnership called United Nations peacekeeping encompasses military, police, civilian and political dimensions. The past 20 years have witnessed the active military, police and civilian engagement of Ukraine in more than 20 missions under the United Nations mandate. As of today, my country has contributed more than 34,000 Blue Helmets to United Nations peacekeeping efforts in every region of their deployment throughout the world.
Ukraine is committed to further supporting the United Nations in its peacekeeping endeavour. This year, at the Secretariat’s request, we are considering doubling our military aviation unit in the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Recognizing the added value of inter-mission cooperation in terms of military advantages, cost-effectiveness and the promotion of regional approaches to regional issues, Ukraine will further pioneer this innovative form of peacekeeping.
Earlier this month the Ukrainian Parliament granted approval for the permanent transfer of our armed helicopters from Liberia to Côte d’Ivoire, to be used in both countries along and across their border, in accordance with resolution 2062 (2012). Being also an active police-contributing country and a committed actor in the area of peacebuilding, Ukraine plans to send a formed police unit to the United Nations Mission in Liberia. This step will be a practical follow- up to Ukraine’s membership in the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission and the steering group of its Liberia configuration.
As was pointed out by the President of Ukraine in his address to the General Assembly in September 2012, our country is
“truly proud of the contribution of the sons and daughters of Ukraine — servicemen, law enforcement officers and civilian personnel who have served and continue to serve the noble ideals of peace under the United Nations flag” (A/67/PV.9, p. 15).
We are resolved to maintain and advance our multidimensional engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations in the years to come.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Sweden.
Ms. Burgstaller (Sweden): I have the honour to speak on behalf of the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and my own country, Sweden.
At the outset, I should like to thank Pakistan for taking this initiative to hold an open debate on the multidimensional approach to United Nations peacekeeping. The Nordic countries share the basic premises of the concept note distributed ahead of the meeting (S/2013/4, annex) and fully agree with the notion that a multidimensional approach is key to building lasting peace. I will focus my statement on three main issues related to the topic of today’s debate: multidimensional operations, coordination and coherence, and financing.
Multidimensional peacekeeping operations provide the basis for a strong link between peacekeeping and peacebuilding, but a multidimensional approach also puts new demands on the missions. There is a need to train police and military personnel to operate in multidimensional settings to ensure that the United Nations will have the right person in the right place at the right time. Also, more effort should be directed at strengthening the peacekeepers’ capacity to create an enabling environment for peacebuilding activities, which include such critical areas as security sector reform, the rule of law and human rights. The global focal point could be an important contributor to achieving these objectives.
In addition to police and military personnel, missions also require stronger civilian capabilities. We fully support the Secretary-General’s initiative to respond to the increasing demands for civilian personnel. In this context, the creation of CAPMATCH was a very important step forward. We commend the Secretariat and the civilian capacities team for making good progress in getting this new system for mobilizing civilian capabilities from both the global South and the global North up and running. Furthermore, we also encourage the Secretariat to continue its efforts to improve the gender balance of the mission staff, including in leadership positions.
The United Nations must deliver as one, including in a mission setting where there needs to be a very close integration between the United Nations country team and the peacekeeping mission, especially on planning and implementing civilian tasks. There should be a stronger focus on coordination and coherence with other actors in the field, such as international financial institutions, regional organizations and bilateral partners. Finding pragmatic ways to operate in close coordination, building on each other’s comparative advantages, is key. The joint ventures in the Liberian context between the United Nations police and bilateral partners is a useful example of how this can be done.
Such an integrated approach also allows the Security Council to achieve its goals without overloading the peacekeeping missions with tasks others may be better equipped to carry out in the peacebuilding area. In this regard, we encourage closer cooperation between the Council and the country configurations of the Peacebuilding Commission.
Finally, I would like to make a few comments on financing. Proper resourcing is important. The elaboration of mandates in the Security Council cannot be delinked from the debates about budget in other forums, and this is essential in the context of ensuring a smooth transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding and long-term development. In his report for the 2013 session of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping (A/67/632), the Secretary-General emphasizes the need to ensure sustained international support in the transition phase. The Nordic countries believe that such support is crucial to reach the relevant end-states.
Let me conclude by stressing that in all these efforts nothing is more important than the role of the host country. To reach the desired end-states in United Nations missions, broad national ownership is of vital importance. Good political leadership and accountability are essential for successful outcomes.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Croatia.
Mr. Vilovi. (Croatia): First of all, I would like to thank you, Mr. President, for organizing this important debate around the issues that lie at the very heart of the Organization, namely, its efforts to establish and pursue the most efficient way to maintain and rebuild international peace and security. At the same time, our appreciation goes to the Secretary-General for his useful briefing on the subject.
Croatia aligns itself with the statement delivered on behalf of the European Union earlier in the debate.
However, allow me the opportunity to share a few additional remarks in my national capacity.
In our view, peacekeeping and peacebuilding represent but two sides of the same coin, closely intertwined and deeply interrelated. The durability of established ceasefires and signed peace agreements depends to a large extent on the determination and readiness to rebuild the national fabric and basic institutions, as well as the ability to address the root causes of the conflict.
The route that countries emerging from conflict take at the very beginning of their recovery will significantly determine their trends and prospects for future success. My country has contributed its share in overall peacekeeping efforts. At one point, Croatia was participating in 15 different peacekeeping operations simultaneously, and it is ready to continue to play its part in the future.
While recognizing the primary responsibility of national authorities in identifying priorities and strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding, Croatia strongly supports a comprehensive, coherent and integrated approach to those efforts. That of course first of all implies close cooperation between the host Government and the international community, but at the same time it entails efficient coordination among all stakeholders in the process. In that context, Croatia welcomes endeavours to further clarify the roles and responsibilities of key actors in this field, in particular within the United Nations family.
It is useful to bring to mind here the fact that the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) was established with the aim of supporting countries emerging from conflict by bringing together all the relevant actors, marshalling the requisite resources and providing strategic and concrete recommendations in order to improve the coordination of peacebuilding efforts within and outside the United Nations. In addition, the PBC is there to fill gaps that often exist between security and reconstruction, through an innovative yet coordinated, coherent and integrated approach directed at post-conflict recovery, reconstruction and institution-building. Institution-building in key areas, such as the security sector and the rule of law, which have been identified as conditions sine qua non, is the most essential prerequisite for any recovery and sustainable development.
In that context, Croatia strongly supports efforts to broaden and deepen the pool of civilian capacities for peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict, and an efficient exchange between the seekers and providers of services with particular emphasis on promoting cooperation among countries with similar needs and experiences.
Croatia welcomes the Council’s commitment to regularly assess, together with other relevant actors, the mandate and composition of peacekeeping operations with a view to making the necessary adjustments, according to the progress achieved on the ground, thereby allowing for, on a case-by-case basis, the reconfiguration, transition or withdrawal of the operation.
More specifically, in accordance with the outcome of the Security Council’s and the Peacebuilding Commission’s thorough deliberations in July 2012, Croatia strongly supports the calls for more dynamic relations between the Council and the Commission. The window of opportunity for that is open wider when the Council is establishing and renewing the mandates of United Nations missions, and it should be properly utilized. We believe that the best practices developed since the establishment of the Commission should be used more systematically in the countries on the PBC’s agenda.
It is clear that the success of operations aimed at keeping and rebuilding peace requires timely, sustainable, predictable and flexible resources. Croatia recognizes the critical part that peacebuilding funding plays as an early investment towards sustainable peace and development. In that context, Croatia notes with appreciation the special roles that the Peacebuilding Fund and the international financial institutions have been playing in peacebuilding efforts, particularly in helping to design poverty-reduction strategies and economic development policies.
Finally, let me conclude by seconding the call that we have heard so many times today for the adequate participation of women at all stages of peacebuilding efforts and for their full inclusion in decision-making processes.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Kenya.
Mr. Kamau (Kenya): Let me begin by thanking Pakistan for organizing today’s debate on a matter of great importance to peace and security, to the wellbeing and protection of millions of people and, by extension, to the promotion of democracy and good governance in many parts of our world.
Kenya has continuously contributed to peacekeeping with military and police personnel since 1981.
Peacekeeping operations have evolved through time from the traditional posture of the 1960s to the complex and multidimensional practice of the twenty- first century. Since 1948, there have been a total of 67 peacekeeping operations, and 16 are operational today. The complexity of conflicts today, combined with global expectations on human rights, gender balance and cultural sensitivity, has necessitated a thorough review of peacekeeping mandates and practice in order to effectively address modern operational needs. The Secretary-General, in his report on the implementation of the recommendations of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, published on 12 December 2012, states:
“Operations today are more varied and complex than ever before, bringing together various configurations of civilians, troops and police under a unified leadership. Some missions are multidimensional, with an evolving mix of military, police and civilians supporting peacebuilding, protection of civilians and other transitional tasks” (A/67/632, para. 2).
That mix requires unique strengths, legitimacy, burden sharing and the ability to deploy and sustain troops in the field.
The multidimensional nature of peacekeeping operations today requires that peacekeepers not only maintain peace and security but also facilitate political processes, protect civilians, assist in the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants, support the organization of elections, protect and promote human rights and assist in the restoration of the rule of law. All of those activities combined are hard to do, but together, if well done, they lay a good foundation for peacebuilding and democracy.
Africa hosts the largest number of peacekeeping missions. The peacekeepers in those missions are faced with complex challenges, as I just mentioned, that require a unique and specific approach in Africa to succeed. By definition, therefore, multidimensional peacekeeping must embrace the role of regional organizations and entities in a streamlined and
synergistic manner in order to increase the chances of success and the effectiveness of the United Nations.
In South Sudan and the Sudan, peace will remain elusive unless the gains realized following the signing of a series of agreements in late 2012 are harnessed, followed through aggressively and implemented expeditiously. United Nations peacekeeping has to play its role to facilitate the peaceful resolution of the ongoing disputes.
Furthermore, the security situation in Darfur remains volatile, despite the deployment of the large African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur in 2008. Ethnic and tribal conflicts that continue sporadically, along with clashes between Government forces and rebels, pose serious threat to peace. The hybrid peacekeeping mission there is expected to help resolve those difficulties.
The emergence of the Mouvement du 23 mars (M-23) in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo has rekindled sad memories of rebel groups that controlled the area in early 2000. The recent action by the M-23 in several towns, including Goma, should be a wake-up call for all of us as to the need for an urgent review of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its mandate, as well as of the concept of operations and the logistics support package that governs the operational capabilities of the United Nations force. Peacekeeping cannot be passive and indifferent to the plight of populations, lest it lose credibility and do irreparable damage to the reputation of the United Nations.
Normalcy is returning to West Africa in Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia and Sierra Leone, but the recent takeover of northern Mali by Al-Qaida and affiliated Islamist militia and the developments in the Central African Republic are a tragic reversal. Worse yet, they inject into the region the added complexity of asymmetrical warfare. The situation calls for a quick, decisive and concerted response by the international community and, more important, a more sophisticated and specialized counteraction by United Nations peacekeeping.
In Somalia, the African Union Military Observer Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) has made significant progress in disrupting Al-Shabaab activities. Peace and constitutional democracy are now beginning to take root in the wake of AMISOM’s achievements.
However, resilience and continued engagement will be the key to sustaining those gains, particularly in helping the Somali Government to establish governance and security institutions, as well as justice and rule-of-law capabilities, among other things.
The reality of modern peacekeeping operations is that they are expensive, even if cost-effective. Troop- contributing countries spend significant amounts of money preparing troops, maintaining readiness and deploying expensive equipment to support given mandates. Across the spectrum of peacekeeping operations, the majority of troops are drawn from developing countries, which in turn expect timely reimbursement for legitimate expenses incurred whenever and wherever they commit troops and equipment.
Whereas it might not be the case in every mission, allow me to cite the case of Kenya when it deployed troops and equipment to Somalia in October 2010 and received Security Council support through resolution 2036 (2012), of February 2012. After more than a year of full engagement in Somalia, my country has been reimbursed only a fraction of the millions of dollars committed by the Council and expended by my country. Clearly, that is an unacceptable and unsustainable situation for a country such as Kenya — a developing country that has great needs for resources to invest for urgent economic and social development.
It is in that connection that I request the Security Council and the relevant departments of the Secretariat to ensure that the logistical needs of troops are addressed seriously and comprehensively and that timely and full reimbursement is made without unwarranted delays. It is only by doing so that the multidimensional approach necessary for modern peacekeeping can continue to receive the obligatory support it requires from developing countries and the commensurate investment of troop-contributing countries, including under Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations.
In conclusion, I wish to reiterate Kenya’s commitment to shoulder its responsibilities and to continue to support United Nations mandates in the interest of preserving peace and security on Earth.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Kyrgyzstan.
Mr. Kydyrov (Kyrgyzstan): Let me thank you, Mr. President, for organizing this important debate,
since the United Nations peacekeeping operations are one of the main instruments for the effective maintenance of peace and security. In the light of recent events in Africa and in the Middle East, the role of peacekeeping activities is growing. It is therefore necessary to discuss the existing approaches and to outline further tasks.
A multilateral dimension requires that United Nations peacekeeping activities should effectively respond to arising conflicts, new political challenges and threats to peace. Today, we can definitely say that the potential of United Nations peacekeeping activities has significantly increased in both quantitative and qualitative terms. We support the measures aimed at strengthening the operational potential of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), especially in promoting women to relevant positions in United Nations peacekeeping missions, including increasing the number of female police officers to 20 per cent by 2014. Other measures include the systematic involvement of peacebuilding elements and implementing better mechanisms in the mobilization of resources for ensuring peacekeeping operations. It is also necessary to effectively implement the global field support strategy in order to improve the quality of services and to carry out the mandate of the missions.
It is still imperative to support the global partnership, including strengthening cooperation among the Security Council, the General Assembly, the countries sending peacekeepers and their host States. It is also extremely important that peacekeeping operations be continued with all possible preventive, diplomatic and other measures. The experience of last year’s events proves again that we should strictly observe the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. Accordingly, United Nations peacekeeping missions should operate firmly within the framework of the main peacekeeping principles, namely, the consent of the parties, the non-use of force except in self-defence and impartiality.
We believe that the modern peacekeeping tasks and resource deficits require enhancing cooperation with regional organizations in the framework of their mandates. In that regard, it is important that DPKO, along with its traditional partners, the African Union and the European Union, increase cooperation with other regional structures, in particular the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO).
Kyrgyzstan welcomes the signing of the memorandum of understanding between the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations in September 2012. That legal framework will allow for the use of United Nations experience in the peacebuilding field. We hope that the working meeting of the CSTO delegation and DPKO on the implementation of the memorandum, which will be held this week, will result in elaborating concrete measures for joint peacekeeping activities.
Today, Kyrgyzstan is represented in peacekeeping missions in Liberia, South Sudan, Darfur and Haiti. In recent years, effective cooperation has been established with DPKO, which provides assistance to Kyrgyzstan in training, the expeditious processing of the documents of candidates for peacekeeping missions and expert assessments of the most pressing peacekeeping problems.
In our view, more attention should be paid to improving the legal framework for international cooperation and to the development of legislation at the national level. Accordingly, Kyrgyzstan has made additional efforts for the legal regulation of peacekeeping activities. On 13 July 2012, the President of Kyrgyzstan signed legislation on principles and modalities for the participation of the Kyrgyz Republic in the activities of maintaining international peace and security. In October 2012, the Government of Kyrgyzstan approved regulations on procedures for training military officers to be deployed in United Nations peacekeeping missions. To implement the adopted legislation, Kyrgyzstan is currently considering deploying a military unit in United Nations peacekeeping missions. We greatly appreciate the readiness of DPKO to render assistance to Kyrgyzstan as we undertake those efforts.
In conclusion, I would like to confirm that Kyrgyzstan, as a peaceful country, will continue to contribute to increasing the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations for the sake of the maintenance of international peace and security.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Côte d’Ivoire.
Mr. Bamba (Côte d’Ivoire) (spoke in French): It is my honour to take the floor on behalf of the 15 States members of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). I would like, first, to thank the Pakistani presidency of the Security Council for the month of January for its initiative in organizing
today’s important debate on peacekeeping operations. I would also like to thank the Secretary-General for his important statement at the start of today’s debate. Finally, ECOWAS welcomes the Council’s adoption of resolution 2086 (2013) at the start of today’s debate on peacekeeping operations.
As we all know, the Charter of the United Nations confers upon the Security Council the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. Peacekeeping operations are one of the key instruments used to that end, although they are not specifically mentioned in the Charter. Moreover, with the changing nature of conflict, from inter-State to intra-State, peacekeeping missions have had to adapt to that change, which increasingly places the protection of civilians at the heart of their mandates. They are dangerous missions, which have cost the lives of peacekeepers, in particular in Côte d’Ivoire. We take this opportunity to hail the memory of fallen peacekeepers who have died in the line of duty.
In addition, we must acknowledge the appearance of new non-State actors, radical terrorist groups and their transborder criminal networks that threaten the stability of States, particularly in West Africa and the Sahel. In other words, we are talking about the complex and changing character of crisis situations and conflicts that threaten regional and international peace and security, as is the case in Mali right now. In the face of such threats, the international community, in particular the Security Council, must provide appropriate responses.
When it comes to conflict management in West Africa, ECOWAS can boast of considerable experience forged over more than 20 years of engagement in the settlement of crisis situations, in particular in Liberia in 1990, in Sierra Leone in 1997, in Guinea-Bissau in 1998 and 2012, in Côte d’Ivoire in 2002, and today in Mali. The ECOWAS Protocol Relating to the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Security in the subregion enables the immediate deployment of the ECOWAS Standby Force in the case of crises, following a decision of the ECOWAS Mediation and Security Council, and above all with the consent of the legal authorities of the country concerned.
Those two conditions were satisfied in the case of the Mali crisis. However, mindful of supporting its action in Mali on a robust international legitimate basis, ECOWAS requested the prior authorization of the African Union and the United Nations Security Council before any deployment took place. Resolution 2085 (2012), adopted by the Security Council on 20 December 2012 to authorized the deployment of the African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA), was obtained at the end of lengthy negotiations that reflected the full complexity of peacekeeping mandates.
But the recent offensive by terrorist groups in the south of Mali, which provoked the decisive and beneficial reaction of France in response to a request by Mali’s legal authorities, as well as the deadly hostage-taking situation at the natural gas facility in Algeria by a radical terrorist group, means that the United Nations has to attempt to seriously adapt its capacity to respond more effectively to those types of crises. In that respect, there is a need to further explore the possibilities offered by the normative framework for peacekeeping operations, in particular in the timely articulation of the provisions of Chapters VI, VII and VIII of the Charter of the United Nations.
In that respect, the analysis (see S/PV.6702) conducted on 12 January 2012 during the high-level Security Council debate organized by the South African presidency on the crucial cooperation in the context of Chapter VIII of the Charter between the United Nations and regional organizations, including the African Union and ECOWAS, in the prevention, management and resolution of crises in regional theatres, needs, in our view, to be deepened.
It is often said that the job of the United Nations is not to wage war; that is true, and we agree. But in the light of the large-scale massacres of civilians, mass atrocities and human rights violations, in the light of the attempts by radical terrorist groups and transnational criminal networks to destabilize sovereign States, is the United Nations to stand idly by and passively watch as crisis situations and violence develop? The experience of recent events in Mali leads us to hope that, when the situation requires it, the Security Council will formulate more robust mandates for the imposition of peace, which would subsequently evolve into peacekeeping mandates and, subsequent to that, peacebuilding mandates.
ECOWAS believes that a multidimensional approach to peacekeeping operations is a positive development. Their scope is broad and comprehensive. Their goals are, inter alia, to restore public order and security, allow for the provision of humanitarian assistance, protect and promote human rights, ensure
the protection of civilians in situations of danger, as well as of women and children, taking into account, in particular, the situation of child soldiers, support the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex- combatants, assist in and facilitate electoral processes, support security sector and justice reform, and help to restore administration, the economic sector and the rule of law.
Peacekeepers therefore play a key role in the stability of all regions of the African continent. They need to have clear and viable mandates and the political support of all members of the Security Council and the international community. They must have human, material and financial resources at a predictable and sufficient level so that those operations can be successful.
We know that the military spending of the 15 biggest countries of the world in 2010 alone represents the sum of $1.6 trillion, while the total cumulative spending of all peacekeeping operations from the first one in 1948 to 2010 was only $109 billion, or 23 times less. Recent events involving the actions of terrorists demonstrate the global nature of the threat of terrorism as it affects all citizens of all the countries of the world. That reality cannot be ignored, and therefore requires enhanced international solidarity to strengthen the United Nations international collective security system.
In conclusion, in the light of what I have referred to, I would like to echo what was just said on the financing of AFISMA and to reiterate the formal request made on Saturday, 19 January, by President Alassane Ouattara, Chairman of ECOWAS, at the ECOWAS extraordinary summit on Mali, held in Abidjan. He called on the Secretary-General and the Security Council to quickly adopt the logistical package financed by the United Nations and to establish a special trust fund to ensure that the actions of AFISMA are effective.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Uganda.
Mr. Mugerwa (Uganda): I wish to congratulate you, Sir, and the delegation of Pakistan on ably discharging the responsibilities of the presidency of the Security Council for this month. We thank you for organizing this important debate focused on a multidimensional approach to United Nations peacekeeping. I also thank the Secretary-General for his insightful briefing this morning.
This debate is being held at a time when the nature of United Nations peacekeeping is undergoing significant changes, with operations becoming more complex and multidimensional. The nature of peacekeeping mandates has also changed, as missions are increasingly deployed under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, are incorporating the protection of civilians and are requiring more robust and clearer rules of engagement. At the same time, efforts to resolve conflicts by peaceful means are being put to the test by new threats to global peace and security, including terrorism, piracy and transnational organized crime. The humanitarian consequences of violent conflicts for innocent civilian populations, including women and children, are alarming.
It is therefore essential to continuously focus on how to improve the capabilities and effectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping operations through a multidimensional approach, with greater coordination among all actors in order to ensure coherent and timely responses. Uganda would like to emphasize the following four points.
First, it is crucial to ensure that United Nations peacekeeping operations and those authorized by the United Nations, such as the African Union Military Observer Mission in Somalia and, recently, the African- led International Support Mission in Mali, have clearly defined mandates, objectives and command structures and adequate resources based on a realistic assessment of the situation on the ground. It is our view that each mission should take into account the needs and priorities of the country concerned, through consultation with national authorities and other relevant stakeholders at the earliest possible stages of mission planning.
Now more than ever, United Nations peacekeeping operations should also be more adaptable to emerging challenges, with the requisite resources and capacities. We therefore stress that the existing shortages in some missions, including of air assets such as helicopters in a number of missions, should be urgently addressed if increasingly complex and multidimensional peacekeeping operations are to be effectively carried out. As we have stressed before, the credibility of the United Nations will be greatly undermined by ineffective peacekeeping capabilities anywhere around the world. Unfortunately, I think there are a few incidents that can be pointed to in that regard.
Secondly, we call for enhanced engagement and cooperation among the Security Council, the troop-
and police-contributing countries and the Secretariat in addressing the challenges of peacekeeping in a spirit of partnership, cooperation and mutual trust.
Thirdly, the challenges of multidimensional peacekeeping, as we have seen in recent times, clearly require a collective effort. The ongoing efforts by the United Nations to strengthen partnerships with regional and subregional organizations on matters of peace, security and development are commendable. We call on the Security Council to continue to support regional initiatives and to strengthen their capacity to contribute to efforts to maintain international peace and security. We have seen the important role and contribution of the African Union and subregional organizations such as the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, the Southern African Development Community, the Economic Community of West African States and the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region in peacekeeping and conflict resolution.
Fourthly, as the 2005 World Summit recognized, development, peace and security and human rights are interlinked and mutually reinforcing. The chances for promoting durable peace in conflict or post- conflict countries are bolstered through tangible peace dividends such as the provision of basic services and an improvement in the standards of living of affected populations.
Incorporating peacebuilding activities and tasks, such as support in building national capacities and quick- impact projects, during the early stages of peacekeeping is therefore critical for success. We also underscore the need for closer coordination among affected countries, peacekeeping missions, United Nations country teams and development actors in laying the foundations for durable peace, stability and development. In particular, greater attention needs to be given to building national capacities and institutions in critical areas such as security sector reform, law and order, the judiciary and the civil service, in order to enable a smooth transition when peacekeeping missions depart.
Finally, Uganda pays tribute to the selfless men and women who serve in United Nations peacekeeping missions around the world, often in dangerous and hostile situations, for their dedication and courage. We remember and honour those who have made the ultimate sacrifice in the search for peace and in serving humankind.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Senegal.
Mr. Diallo (Senegal) (spoke in French): I would like to welcome the convening of this Security Council debate on a multidimensional approach to peacekeeping operations. In many ways, this subject reflects the interest that your Government, Mr. President, attaches to this essential mission of the Organization.
Peacekeeping operations have contributed immeasurably to the work of building viable peace, from the adoption of resolution 50 (1948), which established the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization in Palestine, to the adoption of resolution 2085 (2012), which authorized the deployment of the African-led International Support Mission in Mali. Therefore, from a simple ceasefire observer force, peacekeeping operations have evolved and changed, depending upon the circumstances, into missions seeking to re-establish, impose or build peace.
Because of those profound changes, it has become crucial to re-evaluate missions in all their aspects. The appearance of new threats to international peace and security — such as terrorism, transnational organized crime, an increase in the number of internal conflicts, which provide fertile grounds for human rights violations, and the terrible effects of poverty — has led us to rethink the mandates of peacekeeping operations, and rightly so.
For peacekeeping operations to be successful, all the parameters that have an impact on the achievement of lasting peace must be taken into account, as highlighted in several reports, particularly the report of the High- level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change entitled “A more secure world: our shared responsibility” (see A/59/565). Over and above the original mandate of ensuring security in order to help rebuild defence forces and facilitate humanitarian aid, we must add to the responsibilities of peacekeeping operations those of promoting human rights, supporting political processes until strong institutions that can ensure democracy and the rule of law are put in place, and supporting the economic reconstruction of the country, without forgetting the fight against certain pandemics.
The political process on which the viability of any peace work depends must remain inclusive and representative of the various social elements that are involved in a conflict. We saw a perfect illustration of that in Timor-Leste, where the United Nations
Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) succeeded in organizing free and transparent presidential and legislative elections by working effectively with all parties involved in the crisis. The success of UNMIT is all the more exemplary because the security sector reform it undertook, particularly of the police, remains a perfect illustration of the capacities of the young Timorese nation to take responsibility for that important aspect of its future.
I must also highlight the crucial role played by the protection of human rights and the provision of humanitarian assistance in maintaining security and restoring a climate conducive to peace. Human rights violations, especially of women and children, have no place in peace processes, which are already so fragile. The fight against impunity must not therefore be sacrificed on the altar of national reconciliation. It should instead contribute to the establishment of a new society based on respect for human dignity and the obligation to provide justice to all its members. In addition, there is the immense and daunting challenge of economic reconstruction, whose success would allow for the avoidance of any relapse into hostilities, which may be sought by those who may feel marginalized by the restoration of peace.
The review of this multidimensional approach also gives me an opportunity to welcome the option of cooperation with subregional organizations to establish hybrid forces, as well as the concept of inter-mission cooperation, which allows troops to be shared among several theatres of operation.Thatreflects the full extent and complexity of the deployment of peacekeeping missions.
Well aware of the various threats to collective peace and security and convinced of the need for action, since achieving national sovereignty, my country has placed peacekeeping at the heart of its foreign policy. Perpetuating that tradition for the good of world peace, the Senegalese defence and security forces are currently contributing 2,113 troops to a number of theatres of operation, including Darfur, Haiti, Côte d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia and South Sudan. As the fourteenth largest contributor of troops to peacekeeping operations and the fourth largest police-contributor, Senegal reaffirms its commitment to a world free of the spectre of war and reiterates its faith in the ideals of peace that are at the foundation of the Organization.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Tunisia.
Mr. Khiari (Tunisia): I would like to thank the Pakistani presidency of the Security Council for organizing this timely open debate on a very important topic and for the opening remarks. We welcome the adoption of resolution 2086 (2013) this morning. We remainconfident thatthe recommendationsand remarks outlined in this debate will contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of this important tool and in highlighting the relevance of a multidimensional approach.
My delegation would also like to associate itself with the statement delivered by the representative of Egypt on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
As contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations since 1960, Tunisia attaches great importance to the United Nations peacekeeping and its fundamental role in the maintenance of international peace and security. Tunisian troops and, since recently, police deployed on United Nations missions have earned high regards thanks to their performance in difficult conditions and environments.
As the nature of threats to international peace and security has changed over decades, so have the challenges facing peacekeeping missions. Conflicts have changed in nature and are today mostly linked to the incapacity of State institutions to deliver and perform effectively. Once limited to protecting boundaries from potential threats, peacekeeping troops are nowadays deployed to protect State institutions and civilians. Intra-State conflicts and the challenge of providing more effective and sustainable responses have led to an expansion in the scope and mandates of peacekeeping.
The new responsibilities, which go beyond the nature of its political and military roles, highlight the strong link between peacekeeping and peacebuilding and their increased complementarity. It is widely asserted that they are mutually reinforcing.
Alhough not prevalent at the time that the Charter of the United Nations was drafted, peacekeeping and peacebuilding reflect the spirit of collective efforts enshrined in that Charter. In that spirit, we need to continue to work on our common vision for post- conflict scenarios. We need to carry on in our task of grasping the linkages between development, peace and security, and to suggest solutions. Our objective is to secure smooth transitions to lasting peace, security and sustainable development.
The United Nations must play the central role in securing a common peacebuilding vision and in bringing together the various actors, including national authorities and development actors. Peacekeeping should be conducted within a coherent, precise and realistic mandate. In that regard, permanent assessment and coordination should be continuously undertaken with the Peacebuilding Commission, regional and subregional organizations and international funds and programmes to ensure a coherent passage to a post- conflict situation. In that regard, my delegation would like to reiterate the outstanding role of the Peacebuilding Commission in providing policy guidance and strategies in post-conflict peacebuilding activities.
To date, peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations are ever better at taking into account realities on the ground. In that regard, we would like to put emphasis on the importance of women’s participation and of language skills, among other requirements, to ensure smooth interactions with populations at the grass roots.
Collective efforts require the full participation of troop-contributing countries in formulating policies and decision-making to ensure the effectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities. Also, countries that generally face economic and financial constraints should not bear the burden of providing troops and financing them. It is extremely important that the issue of the unresolved reimbursement of troop costs be addressed as soon as possible.
Tunisia strongly supports the role and relevance of regional organizations in peacekeeping and peacebuilding. The African Union in particular is strengthening its capacities for post-conflict peacebuilding. That should be strongly supported by the international community. Peacebuilding actors, including financial institutions, should play a significant role in that regard. It is also the responsibility of the international community as a whole to provide the required resources. Peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations last for decades and require the appropriate level of resources over extended periods.
My delegation would like to stress that Tunisia, with its vast experience in peacekeeping, spanning more than 50 years, remains fully committed to actively contributing to peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts and stands ready to contribute further troops and expertise, guided by the ideals and purposes of the United Nations.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Armenia.
Mrs. Khoudaverdian (Armenia): I would like to thank you, Sir, for having convened this open debate to interact and share our vision of peacekeeping and its noble objectives and to highlight our collective commitment to the cause of international and regional peace. We also thank the Secretary-General for his briefing and for his genuine efforts aimed at strengthening United Nations peacekeeping operations.
Armenia aligns itself with the statement delivered of behalf of the European Union. However, we would also like to make some remarks in our national capacity.
Since 1948, United Nations peacekeeping has evolved into a dynamic mechanism for the maintenance of international peace and security. Today, it plays an indispensible role in creating conditions for building lasting peace and development in many conflict-prone societies.
Armenia believes that the larger objective of peacefully resolving conflicts and achieving durable settlements can best be achieved only through a comprehensive approach, including a considerable investment in prevention, political facilitation and mediation within internationally agreed forums. In that regard, there is a need to reassess the ways in which the United Nations and other regional organizations engage in assisting countries emerging from conflict. We must uphold the principle of “do no harm” and review how we operate in different situations to ensure that our actions do not undermine the existing mediation and negotiation processes.
We share the views expressed by Council members and other speakers that call for more systematic attention to the United Nations peacekeeping dimension as well as to post-conflict peacebuilding, and we believe that it should be frequently reflected in the Council’s deliberations.
This open debate offers an opportunity to consider some of the core issues related to the peacekeeping agenda, namely, the political dimensions of peacekeeping and peacebuilding and the relationship between security and development.
United Nations peacekeeping operations are also viewed as vital to building peace in post-conflict situations through the promotion of compliance with international norms and the basic principles of
peacekeeping, including the consent of the parties to the conflict, impartiality and the non-use of force.
Armenia remains committed to post-conflict peace initiatives and believes that the Security Council should further strengthen the rule of law and advance development initiatives by supporting peacebuilding mechanisms such as the Peacebuilding Commission, which helps countries emerging from conflict in their recovery and reintegration efforts aimed at preventing a relapse into armed conflict and at building a sustainable peace through effective peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding strategies.
It is noteworthy that the Peacebuilding Commission has shouldered an important task for the United Nations peacekeeping dimension in defining post- conflict strategies, and we are encouraged that previous reports indicate that it has registered achievements and satisfactory results in some countries.
It is also important that the programmes adopted be country-specific, needs-based and target-oriented, so as to ensure continued adherence from the affected population and to ensure their success.
Armenia joins previous speakers in reiterating the need for the equal and effective participation of women at all stages of the peace process and their involvement in conflict prevention and resolution and the transition from conflict to peace. Female peacekeepers act as role models in the local environment, improving, inter alia, access and support for local women and contributing to empowering women in the community. Such contributions lead to better outcomes for entire societies.
In conclusion, allow me to pay special tribute to the tens of thousands of Blue Helmets who over the years have served the cause of peace under the United Nations banner. Armenia applauds their professionalism, dedication and sacrifice, which have been instrumental in bringing peace, stability and hope to millions of people affected by conflict worldwide.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of El Salvador.
Mr. García González (El Salvador) (spoke in Spanish): Mr. President, may I say how warmly my delegation welcomes your initiative in convening this open debate in the Security Council on the theme “Peacekeeping in the United Nations: a multidimensional approach”. In today’s world, this is key to understanding not only the international context but also the scope of the collective security endeavour undertaken by the United Nations, through this principal organ, and how countries that have moved from conflict towards peacebuilding, such as El Salvador, can contribute to such efforts.
We also align ourselves with the statement made earlier by Ambassador Mootaz Ahmadein Khalil, the Permanent Representative of the Arab Republic of Egypt, speaking on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
The High-Level Plenary Meeting of United Nations heads of State and Government held in 2005 was a major step forward for our Organization in terms of its conception and strategic vision of the form, content and deployment of peacekeeping operations, including lessons learned on the ground from a series of conflicts, including the one in my country, El Salvador, through the United Nations Mission in El Salvador.
That qualitative improvement was bolstered by the decision to establish the Peacebuilding Commission, a hybrid body in terms of composition, but one with a very broad strategic vision that creates bridges and communication channels within countries that are emerging from conflict and are embarking on a peacebuilding process, and subsequently, in a dynamic and dialectical manner, focuses on development as the only means of addressing the structural causes of conflict and achieving sustainable development.
In a context of multipolarity, the varied crises throughout the world, which have a negative impact on the well-being of peoples and nations, such as the international economic and financial crisis, which began in 2008 and whose effects are clear in various parts of the world; the environmental crisis, at whose heart lie the devastating effects of climate change and which is also contributing to increasing the vulnerability of small countries; the political changes taking place within medium-and high-income countries in various parts of the world, which also have major geopolitical and geostrategic implications at the global level; and the global impact of phenomena such as international migration and other complex issues related to the unlawful trafficking and sale of drugs and arms, as well as the impact of transnational organized crime — all of these mean that the multidimensional approach to peacekeeping is an extremely important tool in the context of collective security.
Moreover, we should give thought to the necessity and importance of moving forward with reform of the Security Council. This is an extremely important issue that ties in directly with the vision and the short-, medium-and long-term strategic objectives that have been defined for the deployment of peacekeeping operations.
In our delegation’s view, the time has come to consider peacekeeping operations from a broad- based, holistic angle that from the outset includes the traditional components of peacekeeping operations, but that is combined with a strategic mandate that makes it possible to involve, insofar as the situation on the ground allows, the components of peacebuilding and sustainable development, including the gender perspective and the empowerment of women, who are essential to the achievement of stability, peace, freedom and the development in countries emerging from conflict.
Moreover, that vision should have an institutional expression within the United Nations system, which should be reflected in a greater interaction and collaboration between the Security Council, the Peacebuilding Commission, the General Assembly and the agencies, funds and programmes for development.
Lastly, it is important to stress that the conceptual evolution of peacekeeping operations, again from a broad-based, holistic perspective, should contribute to enhancing collective security in an increasingly interconnected and interdependent world, for the benefit of humankind.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Sri Lanka.
Mr. Kohona (Sri Lanka): At the outset, my delegation wishes to thank the delegation of Pakistan for having organized today’s debate on United Nations peacekeeping, and to welcome the participation of Mr. Jalil Abbas Jilani, the Foreign Secretary of Pakistan.
The delegation of Sri Lanka associates itself with the statement delivered by the Egyptian delegation on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
United Nations peacekeeping missions embody one of the best examples of nations coming together for peace and security, in keeping with the objectives mandated by the Charter of the United Nations. Today, United Nations peacekeepers are one of the most widely recognized elements of the United Nations.
Over the years, we have seen an evolution in United Nations peacekeeping, from a traditional role to a multidimensional one that includes aspects of peacebuilding and even of peace enforcement.
We strongly believe that the performance and direction of United Nations peacekeeping operations should be reviewed at regular intervals to maintain focus on priorities, the fundamental principles of the United Nations, the goals of Member States and realities on the ground. We should not permit peacekeeping missions to get bogged down under outdated frameworks. We hope that this open debate will help us to focus on the evolving relationship between peacekeeping and peacebuilding.
As early peacebuilders, peacekeepers can play a crucial role in the transition phase to prevent a relapse into conflict by bolstering basic safety and security elements, providing essential services, institution-building and economic revitalization. Peacekeeping should not be treated as a substitute for addressing the root causes of conflict, as violent armed conflict may originate due to a range of different reasons. It should be considered only as an effective tool to create an environment conducive to addressing the causal issues in a coherent, well-planned, coordinated and comprehensive manner, by implementing appropriate political solutions and development strategies.
Many conflicts are rooted in economic deprivation, marginalization and a lack of opportunity. If the goals of peacekeeping are to be realized, those aspects also need to be addressed.
In their role as early peacebuilders, United Nations peacekeepers have to be aware of peacebuilding challenges from the inception of a mission. Peacekeepers should be deployed only after careful assessment of a conflict situation. The ultimate goal of peacekeeping should be to build peace and the national capacities and institutional capabilities of the affected countries to enable them to manage their own affairs without outside interference. Once the basic framework for peace has been created and a framework established for addressing the root causes, an exit strategy must exist for the withdrawal of peacekeepers. There should be no hasty withdrawal of peacekeepers, as has happened in some instances. Exit strategies must be developed carefully, inter alia by keeping in mind the safety of peacekeepers. A successful transition can be guaranteed
only through developing clear, credible and achievable mandates.
Well-trained and experienced military and police can play a vital role in peacebuilding. It is important that the criteria for the selection of peacekeeping troops remain at the level of their proven and recognized professionalism and integrity.
The equipment necessary for missions must be provided from all available sources. We are surprised that equipment is still an issue.
We pay tribute to the many peacekeepers and associated staff who have sacrificed their lives in the line of duty over the years.
Sri Lanka firmly believes that United Nations peacekeeping operations should be conducted by respecting fundamental principles. The consent of the parties, impartiality and sensitivity to local circumstances are central in that regard. Any peacekeeping mission must reflect respect for the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity and non-intervention in matters that are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of States.
The development of peacekeeping policies and strategies should take place through intergovernmental processes. Cooperation between the Security Council, the Secretariat and the troop contributors is integral to the successful completion of peacekeeping mandates.
We affirm the role of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations as the central body responsible for policy development. In our view, despite their shortcomings, United Nations peacekeeping operations remain vastly superior — in terms of effectiveness and efficiency — to other alternatives. Diversified and multidimensional mandates are key, as they enhance the effectiveness of United Nations peacekeeping missions.
We hope that this debate will also focus on the importance of providing adequate resources to peacekeeping missions to carry out their mandates. We stress that resource gaps and issues related to reimbursement for peacekeepers should be resolved in a way that does not unduly burden troop-contributing countries, some of which are in fact subsidizing the United Nations.
From the planning stage until actual deployment, it is imperative to have close consultations on and careful evaluation of the resource gaps. All stakeholders in the peacekeeping partnership need to work together to deliver the best results.
In conclusion, Sri Lanka is pleased to reiterate its continued commitment to the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and United Nations peacekeeping operations. We are honoured to have been able to serve with other Member States in a number of United Nations peacekeeping operations. We continue training and assessment of peacekeepers in Sri Lanka in an effort to uphold the highest standards of peacekeeping.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Nigeria.
Mr. Sarki (Nigeria): First of all, my delegation wishes to express its profound appreciation to your delegation, Sir, for convening this important debate on United Nations multidimensional peacekeeping. We thank your Government for allowing your Foreign Secretary to preside over this debate. We also thank His Excellency Mr. Ban Ki-moon for providing a briefing on this important topic.
We have the honour to associate ourselves with the statement delivered by the Egyptian delegation on behalf of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries.
Peacekeeping is not only about separating warring parties or enforcing a ceasefire; it is also about strengthening State capacities to provide security and meet development needs. Peacekeeping, therefore, along with peacemaking and peacebuilding, is also an investment in keeping millions of people alive, as was rightly observed by former Secretary-General Kofi Annan in his report entitled “In larger freedom: towards development, security and human rights for all” (A/59/2005).
As a member of the Peacebuilding Commission and the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, Nigeria shall continue to show an active interest in all matters related to the maintenance of international peace and security and to contribute to the endeavours of the United Nations in that area.
Nigeria’s peacekeeping contingents have served in many lines and climes since our independence in 1960, and have brought comfort and security to countless numbers of innocent civilians in many countries. We pledge to continue our constructive engagement with the United Nations in upholding the Charter of the
United Nations and in the maintenance of international peace and security.
We note that in recent years — especially given the changing nature of conflicts and the complex demands of peacekeeping, peacebuilding and post-conflict national reconstruction — the traditional role of United Nations peacekeeping, which had hitherto focused on the strict observance of ceasefires, has given way to much more complex and multitasked operations. Today, peacekeeping has become a multidimensional endeavour in which a variety of objectives are pursued at the same time. No doubt, that has added a huge burden to the United Nations and requires considerable funding to operate successfully. Not only that, peacekeeping contingents must now include a variety of actors — from civilian advisers to police and military personnel — who not only enforce the peace but also undertake reconstruction, reconciliation and the restoration of institutions. There is also no doubt that that informed the wisdom behind the Security Council’s decision to include peacebuilding as part of the overall mandate of peacekeeping operations.
It is our considered view that, as much as it has become necessary — indeed essential — for the international community to undertake peacekeeping operations, it must still be our understanding that conflicts and wars are unacceptable, and that they should as much as possible be prevented from breaking out in the first place. We would like to see the world’s resources, especially those of the United Nations, focused on preventing conflicts from breaking out. We believe that more resources should be dedicated to the prevention, rather than the amelioration, of conflicts. We also deem it important that the United Nations develop full capacities to monitor all global hotspots likely to degenerate into hostilities, take timely action to prevent outbreaks. However, since peacekeeping is still necessary, and indeed an indispensable factor in the work of the United Nations, we believe that the following issues should be noted in all such activities.
First is the establishment of interlocking systems of peacekeeping capacities that will enable the United Nations and regional organizations, such as the African Union, to work together. Also, reserve capacities should be created to be tapped by both the United Nations and regional partners.
Secondly, we should increase the civilian components in mandates of all peacekeeping operations, in order to enhance post-conflict reconstruction, a deepening of security sector reform and the rebuilding of civilian institutions.
Thirdly, we should increase both the monitoring and oversight capacities of Member States and of the Secretariat in all peacekeeping operations, to ensure the observance of the rule of law and the rules of proper conduct by members of contingents.
Fourthly, we should work to include local peace resources, such as women’s groups, youth and civil society organizations, religious leaders, traditional rulers and other community and grass-roots leaders, among others, as integral parts of all peacekeeping operations.
Fifthly, we should provide adequate resources to the Secretariat to undertake better organized and results- oriented integrated peacekeeping and peacebuilding missions.
Finally, it is the view of my delegation that troop-contributing countries with vast experience should be considered for peacekeeping missions with peacebuilding tasks in their mandates. The accumulated expertise gathered in previous operations will make them prepared to adequately face the challenges and achieve the desired specific objectives of mandates. In addition, such troop-contributing countries require little or no predeployment training on the implementation of enhanced mandates, thereby saving the United Nations and the world at large a substantial amount of financial and material resources.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Namibia.
Mr. Shaanika (Namibia): I will be brief. My delegation joins other representatives, Mr. President, in congratulating you on assuming the presidency of the Council. We also commend you for scheduling this important debate on United Nations peacekeeping. The concept paper you circulated, on the theme “United Nations peacekeeping: a multidimensional approach” (S/2013/4, annex), has been very helpful in guiding our deliberations today. I would also like to thank the Secretary-General for his insightful statement on this important subject.
While my delegation aligns itself with the statement delivered by Ambassador Mootaz Ahmadein Khalil, Permanent Representative of Egypt, on behalf of the
Non-Aligned Movement, I would like to make some additional comments in my national capacity.
The nature and scope of United Nations peacekeeping operations have evolved over the years since the first deployment, in 1948. That evolution has come with challenges and complexities. In order to overcome challenges and meet the changing demands, the creation of conditions enabling the success of missions is essential at an early stage. Similarly, the international community, in particular the Security Council, must at all times muster the necessary political will to a send clear message expressing its resolve to act.
It is our conviction that peace is a cornerstone to the foundation of sustainable development. It is therefore essential that it be promoted and that, whenever it is in danger, efforts be made to maintain and preserve it. While each operation is unique, hard lessons from past experiences can serve as guides in new operations to avoid repeating past mistakes.
While peacekeeping continues to be an essential means of assisting people in conflict areas suffering from the scourge of war, strong emphasis should be placed on prevention and peacebuilding. Once conflict is resolved, the task of peacebuilding is equally challenging. It often requires a number of corrective measures by weighing reconciliation on the scales of justice. Such efforts require well-trained, disciplined and motivated personnel.
Regional and subregional organizations are equally important partners in solving conflicts throughout the world, as provided for under Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations. It is therefore important to strengthen the early-warning capacity of regional organizations to monitor and detect potential conflicts and contain them before they become full-blown.
The contribution of women in peacekeeping operations requires special acknowledgement. Often, women in peacekeeping missions serve as a source of inspiration to women and girls in conflict-ridden parts of the world. On its part, Namibia has heeded the Secretary-General’s call by nominating women to serve in various United Nations peacekeeping missions.
While many conflicts today are between local actors, external actors must refrain from fuelling conflicts and instead use their influence to assist in finding amicable solutions to conflicts. That is why Namibia believes in respect for the sovereign equality of all States. That principle constitutes a pillar of international law, and indeed serves as the bedrock of peaceful relations among nations.
Namibia was a beneficiary of a United Nations peacekeeping mission between April 1989 and March 1990, when the United Nations Transitional Assistance Group (UNTAG), composed of peacekeepers and monitors from many parts of the world, assisted in its transition to independence. Our experience has demonstrated the importance of national ownership of peacebuilding and the responsibility to guard it. The success of UNTAG’s mission also stimulated a sense of responsibility for Namibia to play its modest role in the maintenance of international peace and security.
My delegation wishes to highlight the importance of enhancing cooperation among troop-contributing countries, the Security Council and the Secretariat. We believe that that will contribute to an inclusive and informed decision-making process that could positively impact ongoing peacekeeping operations.
In conclusion, let me also take this opportunity to pay special tribute to the men and women from many nations, including your own country of Pakistan, Mr. President, who sacrificed their lives in the line of duty while trying to bring peace to conflict-ridden parts of the world. As we speak today, there are still many peacekeepers on various missions trying their best to make the world a better and more secure place for us to live in. It is not an easy task. Yet, in the face of multiple challenges, they always show an enduring determination to bring hope to people in despair and to put a smile on the faces of children in conflict areas.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Chad.
Mr. Allam-mi (Chad) (spoke in French): I would like to convey our congratulations to you, Mr. President, on your assumption of the presidency of the Security Council for this month. I also commend you on your initiative to organize this important debate. We also thank the Secretary-General for his excellent briefing this morning on the issue under consideration.
Insightful statements have been made today on the question of the maintenance of our collective security, which is indeed the basis for the existence of the Security Council. My delegation associates itself with the statements made on behalf of those groups of which my country is a member, in particular that
made on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement by the representative of Egypt. My statement will therefore be brief. Allow me first to address various aspects of the issue of peacekeeping in the light of the development, many years after the establishment of the United Nations, of crisis situations that threaten international peace and security.
Today we cannot talk about durable peacekeeping without the mobilization of international resources aimed at dealing with problems of good governance, internal security and terrorism. Young democracies are often destabilized by terrorist movements masquerading as political or armed opposition. Beyond its traditional mission, the United Nations is called on to support democratically elected Powers and to strengthen States’ capacity to avoid the pitfalls that can lead to the collapse of a fragile peace in those countries. It is those collapses that may pose threats to regional and international peace and security. It is clear that such authorities, often transitional ones, must demonstrate the political will to settle their internal political and social crises.
Yes to zero tolerance, but, realistically, we must recognize that it is no less true that it is essential that the international community show leniency to those authorities so as not to complicate even further the often complex and difficult task in which they are dealing with opponents more interested in grabbing power in their country than in peacebuilding and economic and social development.
United Nations peacekeeping operations are also often very slow to get going, which clashes with the need in countries and regions dealing with a threat to peace and security to act effectively and quickly and to prevent serious developments, and highlights the importance of regional and subregional organizations in preventing conflict and keeping the peace. That was why, at the beginning of December 2012, faced with the Central African crisis, President Idriss Deby Itno of Chad, as Acting President of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), acted promptly in starting a fundamental and vital dialogue in those circumstances. It was essential to prevent the fighting from spreading to the capital, by sending Chadian forces to intervene between the belligerents and create the conditions necessary for political dialogue. Still as a matter of urgency, on 21 December, the President held an emergency session of the Summit Conference of Heads of State and Government of ECCAS, which approved his initiatives and took important decisions paving the way for a process of peaceful settlement of the crisis.
On the question of the crisis in Mali, Chad was granted emergency authorization by the National Assembly to send to Mali a significant force of some 2,000 men in the context of resolution 2085 (2012), which authorized deployment of an African-led International Support Mission in Mali.
Given the time constraints, my delegation will refrain from expatiating on Chad’s multifaceted contributions to United Nations peacekeeping operations. Nevertheless, we wish to recall that Chad has a wealth of experience in lessons learned, due to the internal crises that we have had to overcome and the external aggressions we have had to deal with, not to mention the contributions it has made to peacekeeping operations in the Central African Republic, Haiti, Côte d’Ivoire, Syria and Darfur.
Finally, we hope that the international community will help us to bear the burden of providing protection for refugees in Chad, whom we have hosted with the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad, as well as, in addition, the costs of deploying our forces in the Central African Republic and Mali.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Zimbabwe.
Ms. Nyamudeza (Zimbabwe): I join others in thanking you, Mr. President, for convening this open debate on a multidimensional approach to United Nations peacekeeping. Peacekeeping represents one of the most visible, difficult and critical roles played by the United Nations.
Zimbabwe aligns itself with the statement made by the representative of Egypt on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement.
My delegation shares the view that peacekeeping is an essential tool for overcoming threats to international peace and security and supporting complex transitions from conflict to stability. Over the years, Zimbabwe has demonstrated its strong commitment to peacekeeping operations by contributing troops, police and observers. It currently has a presence in several United Nations missions. My delegation will continue to contribute to the work of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, whose mandate is to review all aspects of United Nations peacekeeping operations.
My delegation is of the view that the legitimacy of United Nations peacekeeping operations is essential for their long-term effectiveness. It is of the utmost importance that peacekeeping missions be conducted in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and the relevant resolutions of the Security Council. In addition, peacekeeping should adhere to the three basic principles of peacekeeping operations, that is, the consent of the parties, impartiality and the non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate. They must also respect the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-intervention in States’ domestic matters. In that regard, it is important to provide clearly defined mandates, a unified line of command and efficient use of existing resources.
The complexity and challenges faced by United Nations peacekeeping operations, and the expectations they generate, are constantly growing. Nonetheless, there is now clear recognition that various interlinked factors must be considered in any peace agenda. Furthermore, comprehensive actions should be taken with a view not only to establishing peace but to ensuring its durable consolidation. My delegation is of the view that it is therefore necessary to seek solutions to the root causes of conflicts, since peacekeeping is no substitute for political action and local conciliation. It is also important that we improve the effectiveness of the United Nations in addressing conflict at all stages, from prevention to settlement and post-conflict peacebuilding.
United Nations peacekeeping has scored several successes over the years. However, it faces tremendous challenges as a result of the growth in both the number and size of its operations, as well as the complex and multidimensional nature of their mandates. Furthermore, the current financial challenges facing Member States, the differing perspectives on mandated tasks and, in some instances, the loss of host Government consent, add to the challenges and pressures on peacekeeping. It is our firm belief that United Nations peacekeeping operations must have the necessary resources — in terms of financing, equipment and personnel — to enable them to achieve their set mandates and objectives.
It is clear that partnership is the cornerstone of success in United Nations peacekeeping. The role of troop-contributing countries in peacekeeping remains a top priority. We stress the importance of those countries’ full participation in policy formulation and decision-making in order to achieve the partnership and effectiveness to which United Nations peacekeeping aspires. Given the size and dynamism of peacekeeping operations, it is important to have strong coordination and communication among troop-and police-contributing countries, the Security Council, the Secretariat and host Governments.
Furthermore, it is important to reach consensus among Member States on developing policies and ensuring that only approaches that have been adopted by them collectively will be implemented. It is vital to avoid changing the mandated tasks of peacekeeping missions without first consulting with troop contributors. Additionally, the Security Council must draft a clear and achievable mandate, based on objective assessments, without rushing to adopt mandates that lack a political basis or sufficient resources. It is our view that unjustified expansions in the capacities of peacekeeping operations could easily blur the line between peacekeeping and peace enforcement, or even jeopardize the impartiality of the mission’s military component. It is also important to have clear exit strategies for the various missions.
As reflected in Article 52 of the Charter of the United Nations, regional and subregional organizations play a major role in the maintenance of international peace and security. The Security Council’s cooperation with regional organizations is no longer an option but a necessity. Such cooperation must be based on the principles of comparative advantage and complementarity of roles. Since regional organizations are closer to the conflicts and might understand the dynamics best, they can play key roles in the areas of preventive diplomacy, peacekeeping and post-conflict peacebuilding, with the timely support of the Security Council.
In that regard, Zimbabwe applauds the strengthening of relations between the African Union and the United Nations, in particular between the United Nations Security Council and the Peace and Security Council of the African Union. The cooperation between the two institutions in peacekeeping operations in the Sudan and Somalia has produced tangible successes. We commend that level of cooperation and would like to see it replicated elsewhere as necessary.
Peacekeeping operations play a crucial role in helping countries to establish the foundations of peace,
reduce the risk of backsliding into conflict and lay the foundations for recovery and long-term development. We share the view that there will be no sustainable peace without efforts to fight hunger, poverty and inequality.
Zimbabwe supports the enhanced integration of peacekeepingandpeacebuilding.Itisthereforeimportant to formulate an integrated and coherent approach to post-conflictdevelopmentthat buildsuponhost-country priorities and that encourages them to get back on their feet in a sustainable matter. In that regard, we underline the important role of the Peacebuilding Commission, South-South cooperation and triangular cooperation in developing national capacity and mobilizing resources for institution-building. It is also vital to strengthen the coordination between peacekeeping operations and the United Nations peacebuilding architecture, including its agencies, funds and programmes, while acting in close cooperation with the national authorities of the State concerned.
The safety and security of peacekeepers is of paramount importance. We urge the Secretariat and Security Council to continue to prioritize the issue.
In conclusion, Zimbabwe stresses the value of partnerships among all stakeholders to ensure the overall success of United Nations peacekeeping. Only the international peace and security of all should be our guide and goal.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of South Sudan.
Mr. Ajawin (South Sudan): At the outset, my delegation would like to express its profound thanks and appreciation to Pakistan and the members of the Security Council for convening this important debate on the theme “United Nations peacekeeping: a multidimensional approach”. Equally, I would like personally to extend my Government’s appreciation and gratitude to Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon for continuous support to my Government in ensuring that peace, stability and development are realized in our nascent State.
Since the independence of the Republic of South Sudan from the Sudan, on 9 July 2011, our nascent State has confronted enormous nation-building and development tasks. In addressing issues pertaining to nation-building and developmental challenges facing the country, the Government of South Sudan and the United Nations embarked immediately on a peacebuilding support plan. The plan emanated from resolution 1996 (2011), which mandated the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) to elaborate a peacebuilding support plan. Subsequently, the Secretary-General produced a report with the idea of putting in operation paragraph 18 of the resolution, in which the Secretary-General requested his Special Representative to work with the Government of the Republic of South Sudan, the United Nations country team and bilateral and multilateral partners, including the World Bank, to produce a plan for United Nations system support for specific peacebuilding tasks.
The underlying objective of the plan was to undertake security sector reform, police institutional development, the rule of law, justice sector support, human rights, capacity-building, early recovery, the formulation of national policies related to key issues of State-building, development and establishing a conducive environment for economic development that would be consistent with national priorities, with a view to contributing to producing a common framework for monitoring progress in those areas. Some measurable progress has been achieved one year after UNMISS began operations in South Sudan. Nevertheless, much remains to be done, especially in the following areas.
First, with regard to the protection of civilians, in the past year my country witnessed an unwarranted and unprovoked attack by the Government of the Republic of the Sudan, in particular aerial bombardment and other border incursions. Those aggressions led to many civilian casualties, especially among innocent women and children. Although the duty of civilian protection is one of the Government’s priorities, my Government would like to see a more robust mechanism put in place by UNMISS to protect vulnerable civilians from aerial bombardment.
Secondly, with regard to communication and coordination with the Government, my Government understands that communication and coordination with UNMISS is of critical importance, especially in achieving the objectives set out in the mandate. The issue of the movement of UNMISS personnel across the country is critical. The lack of such communication with the Government and security organs sometimes results in potentially dangerous situations.
Allow my delegation to take this opportunity to express our condolences to the Government of the
Russian Federation and to the families of the crew involved in the helicopter incident that took place in Jonglei on 21 December 2012. We assure them that the Government of South Sudan is carrying out a fair and credible investigation into the incident. We await its findings.
Thirdly, concerning the issue of infrastructure, UNMISS has managed to achieved some progress in infrastructure development. Nevertheless, my Government believes that it is equally important that the Mission achieve more in the area of infrastructure development, especially with regard to quick-impact projects, with UNMISS operational sites at the country level, such as police facilities and community centres. Given the impassibility of roads in South Sudan, we encourage UNMISS to construct more accessible roads at the national, state, and local Government levels.
Fourthly, with regard to the rule of law, the Government of the Republic of South Sudan appreciates the work of UNMISS, especially in the areas pertaining to the rule of law. However, to achieve greater success and measurable progress in that area, UNMISS should consider, first, the need for greater support and capacity- building for judges and legal advisers and, secondly, the fact that our police forces need to be certified for international recognition so as to be able to participate in regional coordination events.
In conclusion, the experience of UNMISS in South Sudan has been an enriching one and will continue to be so. It has enormously helped our Government to overcome many of the teething problems associated with a country’s emergence from the post-conflict stage. To improve the effectiveness of UNMISS under its Chapter VII mandate, it would be prudent for the Security Council and the Government of South Sudan to continue building on what has been achieved so far, while working on the gaps and challenges that the Government has identified with regard to the operation of the Mission.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Montenegro.
Mr. Šćepanović . (Montenegro): Let me begin by congratulating you, Mr. President, on your assumption of the presidency of the Security Council for the month of January. I would also like to thank you for organizing today’s important debate, as well as to thank the Secretary-General for his briefing. Montenegro welcomes the adoption of resolution 2086 (2013).
My country fully associates itself with the statement made by the observer of the European Union. I would, however, like to make some additional remarks in my national capacity.
Following the trend of change in the nature of conflict and in the dynamics of global security, as well as the more demanding conditions in which peacekeepers operate, the concept of peacekeeping has been evolving and, as a result, we have seen a shift from traditional to modern and more complex peacekeeping, with a truly multidimensional character. With their diversified mandates and vast array of tasks, peacekeeping operations carry out crucial work in countries emerging from conflict in order to pave the way for post-conflict peacebuilding, the prevention of the recurrence of armed conflict, and a move towards sustainable peace and development.
What is needed to meet that challenging objective and build more resilient States is a strategic and coordinated vision and planning, within the framework of an integrated and coherent overall approach that effectively and efficiently incorporates and combines many different aspects of mutually enforcing peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities, starting at the earliest initiation stages. Significant progress has been made so far in developing the nexus between peacekeeping and peacebuilding. Incorporating a peacebuilding perspective in the mandates of peacekeeping operations, thereby contributing to supporting priority peacebuilding areas, has come a long way. We should continue to build on it, in accordance with the relevant strategy of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the Department of Field Services and while following the priorities of host countries in order to ensure national ownership.
The involvement, active engagement and, most important, close cooperation and collaboration of a wide rangeof the stakeholdersinvolvedisof the utmost priority in ensuring complementarity and comprehensiveness in the pursuit of lasting peace and stability. Of particular importance in that context is the need to promote the work to more clearly define and identify everyone’s role and responsibility so that the contribution of every actor is optimized. Close partnerships and the system-wide cohesion of United Nations bodies and other elements of the larger United Nations system and its growing connection with regional, subregional and other international organizations represent an irreplaceable tool for the success of peacekeeping operations in their peacebuilding tasks. It is equally important that we aim for the enhancement of integration and coordination between host Governments and international partners.
Institution-building and capacity development in peacekeeping mandates, in particular in the fields of justice, security and enforcement, are critical components of peacebuilding that enable host countries to effectively tackle post-conflict situations and challenges, especially in the area of the rule of law. In that vein, the civilian capacities initiative represents a good and useful example of enhanced partnership between the United Nations and its Member States to expand the pool of relevant civilian experts in peacekeeping operations to support the immediate capacity-development needs of countries emerging from conflict.
I also want to underline that women have to be included as active participants in peacekeeping missions and in all peacebuilding activities, including in decision-making roles, because we know that peacekeeping and peacebuilding processes involving the participation of women have a better chance to succeed. The protection of civilians, especially women and children, is another area that I believe is central for the restoration of security and, as such, has to be taken into account throughout the lifecycle of a peacekeeping operation.
Montenegro greatly appreciates the importance and role of United Nations peacekeeping as a flagship activity of the Organization and a vital instrument in the maintenance of international peace and security. Although it is a small country with limited capacities, Montenegro is firmly commited and determined to contribute actively and constructively to the noble cause of peacekeeping and peacebuilding, with a view to securing sustainable peace around the globe. My country continuously enhances its participation and contribution in that regard and will make further contributions in line with international efforts.
The President: I now give the floor to the representative of Turkey.
Mr. Cevik (Turkey): At the outset, I wish to express our appreciation for the participation of His Excellency Mr. Jalil Abbas Jilani, Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, as he presided over the debate this morning. I commend your efforts, Mr. President, as the Permanent Representative of Pakistan, as well as those of your able team, in preparing the comprehensive concept note (S/2013/4, annex) and in the adoption of resolution 2086 (2013), both of which highlight the issues and challenges that need more attention. The convening of today’s debate and the adoption of the resolution are a clear reflection of the longstanding exemplary commitment of Pakistan to United Nations peacekeeping efforts throughout the world. I would also like to also thank the Secretary-General for his briefing.
Peacekeeping operations play a critical role in supporting a country in providing a better future for all its inhabitants. Such operations may have different functions, depending on the unique circumstances of each host country. Security is a precondition for development, and development generates more security. Therefore, although assisting a country in creating a physically more secure environment is one of its primary tasks, supporting national peacebuilding efforts should lie at the heart of peacekeeping operations. We therefore welcome the concept of peacekeepers being early peacebuilders.
Over the past year or so, the Secretariat and the Security Council have spent considerable time and energy in developing a new conceptual framework for peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities. Thanks to those efforts, we now have a better and more thorough understanding of those issues. In particular, the clarification of the nexus between peacebuilding and peacekeeping was highly useful and important.
Peacemaking should also be added to that nexus. We believe that it is essential to use all three tools within a coherent, integrated and strategic framework, in order to achieve sustainability. Turkey placed particular emphasis on those issues during its membership of the Council in 2009-2010, including by holding a summit- level meeting in September 2010 (see S/PV.6390), and an informal retreat for the members of the Council in Istanbul, in June 2010, on this subject. Together with Finland and the Group of Friends of Mediation, we are currently working on how to further the concept of mediation in all stages of conflicts, including in the peacekeeping and peacebuilding phases.
Now that we have a better conceptual framework and a better understanding of the interlinkage between peacekeeping and peacebuilding, the next step should be to concentrate on translating that framework into concrete action, both in the Security Council and in the field. In that regard, producing clear and achievable mandates and adjusting them as needed to reflect changing circumstances is necessary for successful
outcomes. Actively supporting national authorities in building their capacities is essential, particularly when we take into account the fact that peacebuilding is primarily a national responsibility. Accordingly, we welcome the civilian capacities initiative.
Furthermore, as peacekeeping missions are economic forces in their own right, it is important to further strengthen their link with local economies. Indeed, that is a peacebuilding measure in itself. On the other hand, we have to be realistic and recognize the fact that there is considerable local resentment, reaction and opposition to peacekeeping missions. One of the priorities of any peacekeeping mission should be to win the hearts and minds of local populations, which can primarily be achieved by demonstrating the path to a better future. In that regard, carefully addressing root causes is to the benefit of the international community at large.
Ensuring coordination and coherence within the United Nations, including through the exchange of information and consultation among the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and the Peacebuilding Commission, is clearly a prerequisite not only for a more effective outcome in New York, but on the ground as well. Partnerships are equally important. Actors with similar peacekeeping and peacebuilding capabilities, especially regional and subregional organizations, should be supported. Such streamlining could also be viewed as a sound investment in a time of austerity. In addition, there is also a need for more regionally coordinated approaches. The involvement of regional stakeholders will increase the chances of success and the sustainability of peacebuilding efforts, even after the peacekeeping missions have completed their mandates.
The peacebuilding element of peacekeeping operations is also important during the transition and withdrawal phases. We must ensure that transition from a peacekeeping setting will not lead to a loss of interest in and support for the relevant country. Ironically, many peacebuilding tasks are needed even more after the withdrawal stage. Therefore, when peacekeeping contingents are being scaled down, the level of support for peacebuilding tasks should not dwindle. If the conditions for preventing a relapse are not properly established and sustained, it will ultimately be impossible to avoid duplication or the wasting of precious human and material resources.
Last but not least, let me also underline the importance of mainstreaming women’s participation in all stages of the peace process. We welcome the increasing awareness within the United Nations system and among Member States of the importance of removing the constraints on such participation, and look forward to seeing further enhancement in the role of women in peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding endeavours.
Before concluding, I wish to pay homage to the men and women serving as Blue Helmets, and to express our condolences for the peacekeepers who have sacrificed their lives in the line of duty.
The President: I give the floor to the representative of Benin.
Mr. Zinsou (Benin) (spoke in French): Mr. President, I would like to offer you my heartfelt congratulations on your country’s assumption of the presidency of the Security Council and to thank you for having organized today’s open debate on peacekeeping operations. I would like to pay particular tribute to you for having been kind enough to preside over today’s debate yourself. The contribution of the Secretary-General to today’s debate was a very edifying contribution as well.
Peacekeeping operations are a crucial aspect of the work of the United Nations in exercising its responsibilities. The international community has made much progress in adapting that precious instrument to changing challenges and threats to international peace and security. At the current stage of its development, the main issues facing peacekeeping remain how to balance mandates for missions and the resources available to them with the challenges they face, and how to ensure complementarity between conventional peacekeeping activities and assistance measures designed to allow host countries of peacekeeping operations to swiftly reach a level of stability and normality. The forces deployed would thereby be able to withdraw at the right time, and the transition towards development in the context of autonomous governance could begin.
On the first point, it is important to continue to consider the possibility of providing peacekeeping operations with robust mandates and high-tech equipment, enabling them to address situations that require such measures. Such situations are increasingly encountered in the theatre of operations, in particular when there is a need to protect civilians from imminent violence and to monitor and enforce embargoes.
On the second point, it is important to harmonize security measures with efforts to rebuild and strengthen national institutions, which are the main vehicles for peacebuilding. In order to be sustainable, those national institutions must be founded on a fair division of power among the different parts of society, and they must be inclusive. The configuration of peacekeeping operations should respond to the nature of the challenges faced. The relative clout of their various component should depend on the challenges faced in the various stages, as the situation on the ground returns to normal.
The definition of strategic priorities and the follow- up to their implementation should be undertaken in a coordinated manner through ongoing dialogue between the authorities of the country and the relevant head of the mission or Special Representative of the Secretary- General in order to enable full national ownership of the normalization process. The development of the nature and orientation of the mission must take into consideration the actions most necessary at each stage. The relevant decisions should be taken in conjunction with the national authorities.
The comparative advantages of peacekeeping operations should be harnessed to increase the effectiveness of measures taken and their implementation. Such effectiveness depends on the ability of the mission to transfer the necessary know- how and expertise to national structures to enable them to fully play their role in the functioning of the State apparatuse. However, the manner in which disarmament, demobilization and reintegration measures for former combatants are carried out is also important in this respect, as is the manner in which the basis for economic recoveryis laid out. The procurement policies of peacekeeping operations should contribute to that recovery.
On another note, a degree of continuity should be ensured in the work of the international community in terms of the leadership of the mission. The completion of military operations should involve the departure of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General who led the mission in the first phase of its activities. That departure should enable the Deputy Special Representative to be promoted to head of the mission to manage the peacebuilding phase. The key role of the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary- General is to prepare reforms in the context of long- term peacebuilding by identifying the problems and challenges to be faced and assisting the country in developing a strategic work plan drafted in conjunction with the country’s authorities and various stakeholders. If possible, some structural reforms should be launched while the international force is still on the ground in order to maximize synergies.
Quick-impact projects would be very useful in all phases of the normalization process, not only to win hearts and minds by providing immediate peace dividends, but also to create the appropriate context in which to undertake dialogue on long-term measures for post-conflict recovery. Soldiers deployed in the force should be made available for basic infrastructure projects. This would enable them to ensure the provision of essential social services.
However, the most important point to be aware of is the need to harmonize efforts for stabilization and peacebuilding, and to ensure that the necessary civil skills are made available to that end as soon as possible. In this regard, the CAPMATCH arrangement established by the Secretary-General is of real interest in terms of building the capacity of peacekeeping operations because it enables, inter alia, the sharing of experience with countries that have been through similar experiences.
In conclusion, I underscore the need for cooperation between Member States in order to enhance the ability of least developed countries to contribute effectively to peacekeeping operations by providing them with equipment that meets United Nations standards. In that respect, I commend our partnerships with France, Belgium and the United States, which have allowed our country to contribute to United Nations peacekeeping operations.
I would be remiss not to mention the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union, in particular in terms of deploying peacekeeping operations. The question of the financing of operations initiated by the African Union and its regional economic communities is on the table. It needs to be resolved in order to shore up complementarities in the collective security system established by the Charter of the United Nations to address threats to international peace and security. That is particularly relevant when there is a need for strenuous combat action, which the basic principles of peacekeeping operations do not allow the United Nations to undertake.
I would also like to endorse the appeal made by the Ambassador of France for more respect for
multilingualism in the deployment of peacekeeping operations, in particular in French-speaking countries.
The President: There are no more names on the list of speakers.
I shall now make an additional statement in my capacity as the representative of Pakistan.
A reference was made earlier today with regard to the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP). No bilateral agreement between India and Pakistan has overtaken or affected the role or legality of UNMOGIP. The United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan continues to monitor the ceasefire in accordance with the resolutions of the Security Council. Its mandate is therefore fully valid, relevant and operative.
I now resume my functions as President of the Security Council.
I give the floor to the representative of India to make a further statement.
Mr. Gupta (India): I am constrained to take the floor and put forward a statement of facts in response to your comments, Sir, concerning the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP).
UNMOGIP’s role was to supervise the ceasefire line established in Jammu and Kashmir as a result of the Karachi Agreement of 1949. That ceasefire line no longer exists, and a new ceasefire line came into existence on 17 December 1971. Following a similar agreement of 1972 between India and Pakistan, signed by the Heads of the two Governments and ratified by their respective Parliaments, the two countries resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations. The agreement also stipulated that the line of control resulting from the ceasefire line of 17 December 1971 shall be respected by both sides. Subsequently, the line of control was delineated in Jammu and Kashmir pursuant to that agreement and with approval of both Governments. Thus, UNMOGIP’s role has been overtaken by those developments.
The President: I shall now make an additional statement in my national capacity.
I have just one brief remark to make. The fact is that both India and Pakistan are hosting the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP).
I now resume my functions as the President of the Council.
I would like to thank all speakers for their valuable contributions in today’s debate. We have had a comprehensive and enriching discussion that brought out the challenges and opportunities that exist in the domain of peacekeeping. We have a vital interest in the continued effectiveness and success of United Nations peacekeeping. I hope that today’s debate and
its outcome will go a long way towards promoting that common objective. This morning, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2086 (2013) on a multidimensional approach to peacekeeping. The resolution was sponsored by all 15 members of the Security Council.
The Security Council has thus concluded the present stage of its consideration of the item on its agenda.
The meeting rose at 4.50 p.m.
Resolution 2086 (2013)
Adopted by the Security Council at its 6903rd meeting, on 21 January 2013
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security and its readiness to strive for sustainable peace in all situations under its consideration,
Reaffirming its commitment to uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including its commitment and respect to the principles of political independence, sovereign equality and territorial integrity of all States in conducting all peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities and the need for States to comply with their obligations under international law,
Commending the critical role of United Nations peacekeeping operations in the maintenance of international peace and security, preventing and containing conflicts, promoting compliance with international norms and Security Council decisions and building peace in post-conflict situations,
Resolving to strengthen the central role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and to ensure the effective functioning of the collective security system established by the Charter of the United Nations,
Noting that peacekeeping ranges from traditional peacekeeping missions, which primarily monitor ceasefire to complex multidimensional operations, which seek to undertake peacebuilding tasks and address root causes of conflict,
Reaffirming that respect for the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, is essential to the success of peacekeeping Operations,
Reiterating the commitment to enhance the effectiveness of the United Nations in addressing conflict at all stages from prevention to settlement to post-conflict peacebuilding,
Encouraging further progress on a comprehensive, coherent and integrated approach to the maintenance of international peace and security by preventing conflicts, preventing relapse and building sustainable peace through effective preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacekeeping and peacebuilding strategies,
Recalling in this regard its commitment regularly to assess, in consultation with relevant stakeholders, the strength, mandate, and composition of peacekeeping operations with a view to making the necessary adjustments where appropriate, according to progress achieved or changing circumstances on the ground including in security, thereby allowing, on a case by case basis, reconfiguration, transition or withdrawal,
Reaffirming the primary responsibility of national authorities in identifying their priorities and strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding, and in this regard, reiterating that national ownership, responsibility and political will as well as concerted efforts of national governments, and the international community, are critical in building sustainable peace,
Emphasizing the vital role of the United Nations, in consultations with international partners, to support national authorities in consolidating peace and in developing strategies for peacebuilding priorities as well as to ensure that these strategies strengthen coherence between political, security, human rights and rule of law activities,
Reaffirming its commitment to address the impact of armed conflict on women and children, and recalling resolution 1325 (2000) and all subsequent resolutions on women, peace and security to reiterate the need for full, equal and effective participation of women at all stages of the peace process, given their vital role in the prevention and resolution of conflict and peacebuilding, as well resolution 1261 (1999) on children and armed conflict and subsequent resolutions,
Paying tribute to the memory of United Nations peacekeepers who have lost their lives in the cause of peace, and in this regard, underscoring the importance of safety and security of United Nations peacekeepers, expressing grave concern about the security threats and targeted attacks against United Nations peacekeepers in many peacekeeping missions that constitute a major challenge to United Nations peacekeeping operations, condemning in the strongest terms killing of and all acts of violence against United Nations peacekeeping personnel, including the recent shooting down of a United Nations helicopter in South Sudan as well as recent casualties in United Nations Missions in Democratic Republic of Congo, Côte d’Ivoire and Darfur, and emphasizing that perpetrators of such attacks must be brought to justice,
1. Welcomes the contribution of peacekeeping operations to a comprehensive strategy for durable peace and security and, notes with appreciation the contributions that peacekeepers and peacekeeping missions make to early peacebuilding;
2. Emphasizes that United Nations peacekeeping activities should be conducted in a manner so as to facilitate post-conflict peacebuilding, prevention of relapse of armed conflict and progress towards sustainable peace and development;
3. Reiterates its commitment to continue to improve its consideration and reflection of early peacebuilding tasks in the mandates and composition of peacekeeping operations, and in this regard, stresses the necessity for the Secretariat to plan early peacebuilding tasks in phases with clear objectives, taking into account local conditions and lessons learned, which should contribute to long-term peacebuilding objectives, in order to allow successful transition and withdrawal of peacekeeping operations;
4. Stresses the importance of grasping the challenges of peacebuilding from the inception of a peacekeeping mission through Integrated Strategic Assessment and Planning processes, so as to ensure coherence between, and integration of, peacemaking, peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development to achieve an effective response to post-conflict situation from the outset;
5. Recognizes the important role of multidimensional peacekeeping missions to: (a) assist host countries in developing critical peacebuilding priorities and strategies; (b) help to create an enabling environment for relevant national and international actors to perform peacebuilding tasks; and (c) implement early peacebuilding tasks themselves;
6. Reiterates the need to integrate mission expertise and experience into the development of peacebuilding strategies;
7. Recognizes that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the needs and situation of the country concerned;
8. Notes, in this regard, that multidimensional peacekeeping missions may be mandated by the Security Council, inter-alia, to:
(a) Provide support to basic safety and security by assisting national security sector reform programmes, through strategic assistance to develop security sector frameworks, and capacity building of military, police and other law enforcement institutions in key areas, while upholding the spirit of complete national ownership and true partnership, with a view to building a legitimate, accountable and sustainable security sector, responsive to the needs of the population;
(b) Enable national governments in conceiving and developing the programmes of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), which must follow a political process in an inclusive manner with a view to ensuring effective transition from disarmament and demobilization to reintegration, taking into consideration the different needs of all parts of the affected population, and in accordance with specific needs of a situation;
(c) Support the strengthening of rule of law institutions of the host country, in a coordinated manner with other United Nations entities, within the scope of respective mandates, in helping national authorities develop critical rule of law priorities and strategies to address the needs of police, judicial institutions and corrections system and critical interlinkages thereof, with a view to supporting the States’ ability to provide critical functions in these fields, and as a vital contribution to building peace and ending impunity;
(d) Provide for rapid response in mine action as well as advisory services and training tailored to needs of national authorities, upon request, with a view to enabling risk reduction, victim assistance, demining and stockpile management and disposal;
(e) Support peace consolidation and inclusive political processes and through their good offices, advice and support, as well as by their ability to deter threats to the ongoing peace process, and facilitate consultation process among local population and civil society to help them contribute to national processes and discussions, and upon request, provide security, technical, logistic and administrative support to representative electoral processes, within the limitation of its capacities and resources;
(f) Help to establish the necessary security conditions to facilitate delivery of humanitarian assistance, taking into account the special needs of refugees, IDPs, women, children, elderly and disabled people, and to create conditions necessary for voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return of refugees and IDPs;
(g) Contribute towards agreed international efforts to protect human rights including through monitoring and prevention and support national governments’ efforts to promote and protect human rights, within its capacities and resources and according to its mandate throughout the life cycle of a Mission;
(h) Protect civilians, particularly those under imminent threat of physical violence, in conformity with paragraph 16 of its resolution 1674 (2006), within missions’ zones of operation and taking into account their capacities and resources, and support the efforts of the host authorities in protection of civilians from violence, including all forms of sexual and gender based violence, and in this regard, help in building and reforming security sector institutions of the host country that are able to sustainably and consistently protect civilians, while recognizing that protection of civilians is the primary responsibility of the host country;
(i) Cooperate and coordinate with United Nations agencies and funds and programs, as well as all relevant partners including international financial institutions and donors, to support the host government and relevant government institutions in designing poverty reduction and economic development policies, plans and strategies, within the context of specific situations;
(j) Support the participation of women in conflict prevention, conflict resolution and peacebuilding, and also support the efforts of the host government towards inclusion of women in decision-making roles in post-conflict governance institutions;
9. Recognizes that, while primary responsibility for successful peacebuilding lies with governments and relevant national actors, multidimensional peacekeeping missions bring comparative advantages in early peacebuilding by: (a) drawing strength from international legitimacy and political leverage derived from the Security Council mandate; (b) using a mix of civilian, police, and military capabilities under a unified leadership; and (c) utilizing deep field presence;
10. Reiterates its resolve to give peacekeeping operations clear, credible and achievable mandates matched by appropriate resources;
11. Underlines the importance of deploying peacekeepers with professional skills, training, experience, excellence and in adherence to the United Nations zero tolerance policy for misconduct, and in this regard, encourages Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries, in the spirit of partnership, to continue to contribute professional military and police personnel with the necessary skills and experience to implement multidimensional peacekeeping mandates, including appropriate language skills at relevant levels;
12. Reiterates the importance, when establishing and renewing the mandates of United Nations Missions, to include provisions on the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women in post-conflict situations and on children and armed conflict, including through the appointment of gender advisers, women protection advisers and experts and child protection advisers, as appropriate, and welcomes the call of Secretary-General for enhanced participation, representation and involvement of women in prevention and resolution of armed conflict and in peacebuilding as well as for a stronger commitment to address the challenges to such engagement of women at all levels;
13. Encourages national governments, the United Nations, regional and subregional organizations to continue to use existing civilian expertise and also to broaden and deepen the pool of civilian capacities for peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict, including from countries with relevant experience in post-conflict peacebuilding or democratic transition, giving particular attention to mobilizing capacities from developing countries and from women, and in this regard, stresses the imperative of mandating and deploying civilian capacities in compliance with relevant United Nations resolutions and rules and procedures, and with a view to minimizing duplication of efforts and ensuring consistency and complementarity;
14. Underlines the importance of clarity on roles and responsibilities of United Nations peacekeeping operations, United Nations country teams and other relevant actors, including entities of the United Nations Peacebuilding architecture and the United Nations Agencies, Funds and Programmes for the delivery of prioritized support to a country, consistent with its specific peacebuilding needs and priorities, as outlined by national authorities, in order to ensure effective integration of effort;
15. Stresses that integrated action on the ground by security and development actors requires coordination with national authorities in order to stabilize and improve the security situation and help in economic recovery, and underlines the importance of integrated efforts among all United Nations entities in the field to promote coherence in the United Nations’ work in conflict and post-conflict situations;
16. Encourages the Secretariat, in the context of Integrated Strategic Assessment and Integrated Strategic Framework, to provide the Security Council and Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries and other key stakeholders with an early assessment of peacebuilding challenges in peacekeeping missions, including assessment of capabilities, force and personnel generation and logistic resource requirements, in order to coordinate and prioritize peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities in missions’ mandates;
17. Recognizes the need to further strengthen the cooperation and consultations with Troop- and Police-contributing countries, including through triangular cooperation between the Security Council, the Troop- and Police-Contributing Countries and the Secretariat, in areas where military and police contingents undertake early peacebuilding tasks, and encourages active participation of all stakeholders in open and more frequent consultation processes with a view to improving the delivery of peacebuilding tasks in the field;
18. Underlines the importance of partnership and cooperation with regional and subregional arrangements and organizations, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, in supporting peacekeeping and peacebuilding activities as well as forging greater regional and national ownership;
19. Recalls its resolution 1645 (2005) and expresses its continued willingness to make use of the advisory, advocacy and resource mobilization roles of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) in peacebuilding activities, welcomes the progress it has achieved, and emphasizes the need for further harnessing these roles in advancing and supporting an integrated and coherent approach with respect to multidimensional peacekeeping mandates in countries on its agenda;
20. Strongly condemns targeted attacks against United Nations peacekeeping personnel from any party to the conflict and in this regard, calls upon the Secretary-General to take all measures deemed necessary to strengthen United Nations field security arrangements and improve the safety and security of all military contingents, police officers, military observers and, especially, unarmed personnel;
21. Requests the Secretary-General to consider the provisions of this resolution in relevant peacekeeping and peacebuilding reports;
22. Decides to remain seized of the matter.