11th ASEM Summit
“20 Years of ASEM: Partnership for the Future through Connectivity”

1. The 11th Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM11) was held in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on 15-
16 July 2016 under the theme “20 Years of ASEM: Partnership for the Future
through Connectivity”. It was attended by the Heads of State and Government or
their high-level representatives of 51 European and Asian countries, the President
of the European Council, the President of the European Commission and the
Secretary-General of ASEAN. The Summit meeting was hosted and chaired by
President of Mongolia Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj.

2. While celebrating the 20th Anniversary of the Asia-Europe Meeting, Leaders
reviewed the progress made and achievements gained since the inception of
ASEM in 1996, and set the course for further enhancement and evolution of the
inter-regional process in the next decade. They took note of ASEM partners’
endeavor to provide inputs on the future of ASEM, notably the Bangkok Initiatives
on the Future Direction of ASEM, the studies entitled “The Future of the Asia-
Europe Meeting (ASEM): Looking ahead into ASEM’s Third Decade”, “Asia-Europe
Connectivity Vision 2025: Challenges and Opportunities” and the conference
entitled “ASEM at 20: Challenge of Connectivity”. Their assessment of the ASEM
process and their vision for its future was reflected in the Ulaanbaatar Declaration
adopted by the Leaders on the occasion of the 20th Anniversary of ASEM. They
also exchanged views on the current political and socio-economic situation in the
world and their respective regions, and discussed ways and means to address the
existing and emerging challenges to international and regional peace, security,
stability and sustainable development.

3. Leaders noted with satisfaction that in the past 20 years the ASEM process has
successfully stood the test of time and has proved its vitality and relevance through
steady enlargement of its ranks and promotion of cooperation between the two
regions in various fields in the interest and to the benefit of the peoples of Asia and
Europe. They reaffirmed their strong commitment to further deepen the partnership
between the two regions on the principles of equality, mutual respect and shared
benefit while preserving the informal and flexible nature of the ASEM process, and
to implement substantial human-centered cooperation projects in the areas of
common interest with a focus on greater connectivity, wider inclusiveness, creating
opportunities for all and more tangible outcomes. Leaders reiterated the openness
of ASEM to interested countries of Asia and Europe.

4. Leaders noted with appreciation the outcome and recommendations of the
Ministerial Meetings held since ASEM 10 in Milan in 2014 in the areas of education
(ASEM ME5 in Riga), foreign affairs (ASEM FMM12 in Luxembourg), labour and
employment (ASEM LEMC5 in Sofia), transport (ASEM TMM3 in Riga), finance
(ASEM FinMM12 in Ulaanbaatar) and culture (ASEM CMM7 in Gwangju).

Shared Common Goals for Future

5. Leaders welcomed the adoption in 2015 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Development, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the Sendai Framework for Disaster
Risk Reduction and the Paris Agreement as milestone documents aimed at building
an inclusive, sustainable and prosperous future for all people and the planet.
Bearing in mind that urgent and decisive action to translate the contributions into
practice will bring about a tangible difference and transform the global economy to
low greenhouse gas emission and climate resilient development, Leaders agreed to
work together towards the timely and full implementation of the goals set in these
documents at the national, regional and global levels, reflecting the balance and
principles agreed in these agreements.

6. Leaders underlined the importance of adapting the relevant national policy planning
process, development plans or strategies to integrate the Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs) and of putting in place systematic and multi-layered follow-up and
review of the implementation of the 2030 Agenda at the international and national
level. They expressed readiness on the part of ASEM to contribute to the follow-up
and review process of the UN and other organizations at the global level, including
at the high-level forum on sustainable development under the auspices of the
United Nations Economic and Social Council and the UN General Assembly.
Recognizing the opportunities, but also the challenges that the implementation of
the 2030 Agenda represents for ASEM partners, Leaders agreed to promote further
cooperation, including sharing of the best practices and experiences among
partners within the framework of the ASEM Sustainable Development Dialogue
launched by the Budapest Initiative.

7. Leaders agreed that the Paris Agreement was an historic multilateral agreement
and legally binding in enhancing the implementation of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change and moving the world towards climateresilient
development, clean and renewable energy, and called for timely entry into
force of the Paris Agreement. Leaders agreed to work together while being guided
by the principles of the Convention, including the principle of common but
differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national
circumstances, towards the timely and full realization of the goals of the agreement
at the national and global levels. They recognized the importance of formulating
long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, ensuring a
balanced approach in addressing the Paris Agreement’s elements and recalling the
purpose of the Agreement to hold the increase in the global average temperature to
well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursue efforts to limit the
temperature increase to 1.5 °C and increase the ability to adapt to the adverse
impacts of climate change. Leaders encouraged ASEM partners to actively engage
in full and effective implementation of the Agreement, including development of
detailed rules and through the implementation of Nationally Determined
Contributions (NDCs) and securing progressively more ambitious action and
support under the Agreement. International cooperation is needed to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions from different sources, including unsustainable
industrial, transportation and forestry practices. They also emphasized that
enhanced support in terms of finance, technology transfer and capacity-building for
adaptation and loss and damage measures from developed to developing countries
is crucial for enhancing the implementation of this Agreement. Leaders agreed that
climate change has a particularly acute impact in the Arctic and called for
international cooperation in this area. Leaders welcomed the International Solar
Alliance of 122 solar rich countries, launched in Paris in November 2015 as a
significant measure by the international community in this field.

8. Leaders recognized the need to integrate sustainable management of natural
resources, both terrestrial and marine, in all policies. They also recognized that key
policy areas such as ecological, recycled and integrated trans-boundary water
management and the links of water to other policy areas such as energy, food
security and ecosystem are shared priorities in all ASEM partner countries. Leaders
stated their support for exchanging knowledge and best practices within the ASEM
framework on these key policy areas, including by continuing engagement in the biregional
cooperation between the Danube and Mekong regions as a model in
transforming shared challenges related to food, water and energy security into
opportunities for inclusive growth and sustainable development. Leaders
recognized the contribution of EXPO 2015 held in Milan to fostering knowledge and
stimulating debate on food security issues and all its related aspects. Noting the
increasing pressure on oceans, Leaders underlined the need to manage marine
and maritime activities in a sustainable way to keep oceans healthy, clean and safe
and to safeguard their potential also for future generations. Leaders reaffirmed their
commitment to tackling the illegal trade in timber and wildlife products by enhancing
cooperation along the whole supply chain, increasing efforts to reduce demand for
illegal products. They noted the growing international consensus on the need for
urgent action. Leaders pledged high level support for the Vietnam Conference on
Illegal Wildlife Trade in November 2016.

9. Leaders underlined the importance of wider use of sustainable energy technologies
and the need to further increase energy efficiency. In this regard, they highlighted
the need to use energy including natural gas more efficiently, increase the
deployment of renewable energy sources and to promote research and
development of innovative sustainable energy solutions and technologies. With
regard to the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, they are
committed to promote nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards. They
reaffirmed their support for strengthening global and regional cooperation in the
peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including in the field of nuclear safety, and for
upholding a strong commitment to the IAEA safety requirements and standards in
order to continuously improve safety of nuclear facilities around the world. It was
noted that several ASEM member states are pursuing ambitious nuclear energy
programmes, considered as part of their strategy for clean energy and climate
change. Leaders acknowledged the need for continuous cooperation within ASEM
and with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on safeguards, nuclear
safety and security, the sharing of experience and best practices among relevant
policymakers and experts. Leaders noted the importance of the establishment of
the Low Enriched Uranium Bank (LEU) under the auspices of the IAEA, recognizing
this as a significant step that will facilitate peaceful cooperation and strengthen
nuclear non-proliferation. Leaders also welcomed the upcoming EXPO 2017 in
Astana dedicated to “Future Energy”, which will give an excellent opportunity for
cooperation in the field of science and technology.

10. Leaders encouraged further development of the cooperation between ASEM
partners in disaster risk reduction and management. They underlined the
significance of strengthening the resilience through sharing knowledge, building
capacity and promoting cooperation on a broad and people-centered approach to
disaster prevention, mitigation, adaptation, preparedness awareness programmes
and response, early warning systems, search, rescue and relief operations, and
application of innovation and technology, while also recognizing the importance of
international solidarity through humanitarian aid and civil protection assistance in
case of major disasters. They invited all ASEM partners to contribute actively to the
implementation of the international framework for disaster risk reduction adopted at
the Third UN Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan, in March

11. Leaders noted the modest and uneven recovery of the global economic outlook
while the Asian economy continues to remain a global growth engine. Leaders
acknowledged that steady progress in implementing sound economic policies
including structural reforms remains crucial for securing stronger potential growth
while enhancing resilience and ensuring that public debt as a share of GDP is on a
sustainable path. Leaders recognized that downside risks to the global outlook
persist in the context of economic and geopolitical uncertainty, continued financial
volatility, global excess capacity in industrial sectors, challenges faced by
commodity exporters and persistent low inflation. Against such backdrops, Leaders
reaffirmed that they stand ready to use all policy tools - monetary, fiscal and
structural - individually and collectively, as necessary, to foster confidence and
achieve strong, sustainable and balanced economic growth.

12. Leaders confirmed the importance of promoting adequate social protection systems
for growth and jobs, enhancing youth labor market outcomes and promoting decent
work and safer workplaces in global supply chains and promoting social dialogue to
discuss and prepare for jobs of the future. In their view, increasing inequalities,
social exclusion and aging populations call for strengthening policies to achieve
sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, and to promote adequate
social protection and decent work for all, including women and youth. Leaders
agreed to pay increased attention to improving skills, employment and active
engagement of young people in the economy and society, and, hence, to
substantially increase the number of youth who have relevant skills, including
technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs, appropriate wage and
entrepreneurship. They emphasized enhancing cooperation among ASEM partners
on upgrading further the skills of youth workforce. In this connection, Leaders
reaffirmed their commitment to enhance labour market outcomes for young people
through structural reforms and investment into human resources development.

13. Leaders committed to promoting more actively sustainable supply chains by
encouraging firms to take up their responsibility and apply, where relevant,
international guidelines including the ILO Tripartite Declaration of Principles
concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy (ILO MNE Declaration), the
UN Global Compact and the UN Guiding Principles for Business and Human
Rights. They encouraged that international labor standards and domestic laws
regarding work-related health and safety rules are upheld and protection of the
environment is given due consideration in their supply chains. In that regard,
Leaders stressed the need for promoting labour rights and safe and secure working
environments for all workers, including for migrant workers, in particular women
migrants and those in precarious employment, and also acknowledging the need to,
inter alia, end all violence and discrimination against them. They also expressed
their support for deepening joint engagement of all stakeholders including
governments, businesses, civil society and labour organizations in the ASEM

Enhancing Connectivity in All Dimensions

14. Leaders agreed that increased focus in ASEM activities on connectivity will
contribute to the relevance of ASEM. They reiterated their decision to mainstream
connectivity in all its dimensions, including political, economic, digital, institutional,
socio-cultural and people-to-people, into all relevant ASEM activities. They
underlined the importance of promoting hard and soft connectivity, including
through quality infrastructure investment and full respect for market rules and
international norms, for forging greater understanding and closer relationship
between the peoples of Asia and Europe and creating business opportunities for all.
Leaders welcomed the outcome of the ASEM Industry Dialogue on Connectivity
held in Chongqing, China, in May 2015. Leaders agreed to establish a Pathfinder
Group on Connectivity for a term of two years.

15. Taking note of on-going regional and sub-regional cooperation and national
initiatives by ASEM partners to connect the two regions, Leaders stressed that
exchange of best practices and experiences at the ASEM-wide level from these
cooperation projects is particularly useful for narrowing the development gap and
further deepening trans-boundary cooperation and connectivity among ASEM
partners. They reaffirmed the urgent need to initiate stronger cooperation to
address the issue of high transportation costs and to search for innovative
solutions, including through exchange of knowledge and information on capacitybuilding
activities. They stressed the need to take into account the special needs of
land-locked, island, archipelagic and geographically-peripheral countries and
regions, in accordance with applicable international law. Leaders welcomed the
establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), which together
with the Asian Development Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and
Development, the European Investment Bank and other multilateral development
banks, has the potential to assist ASEM partners with their connectivity projects. In
this context, they also underlined the importance of closer cooperation on regional
integration issues.

16. Leaders reiterated their commitment to enhance inter-regional trade and investment
flows as an engine of sustainable growth and deeper economic integration
connectivity between Asia and Europe, to actively resist trade-distorting or
protectionist measures and to address restrictions, including non-tariff barriers and
especially behind-the-border barriers, which inhibit trade growth and investment. In
this context, Leaders reiterated the importance of ensuring predictable and stable
business environment. Stressing the central role of the WTO in setting global trade
rules, administering a rules-based multilateral trading system, monitoring its
Members’ trade policies and settling disputes, Leaders welcomed the positive
outcomes of the Tenth WTO Ministerial Conference held in Nairobi in 2015
including the process of enlargement of WTO and considered of primary
importance the implementation of Bali and Nairobi decisions. In their view, these
elements as well as advancement of negotiations on the remaining Doha issues
and achievement of an early entry into force of the Trade Facilitation Agreement
would bring significant economic results.

17. Leaders reaffirmed the important role of the private sector as well as public and
private sector partnership in promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable
economic growth, creating decent jobs, and in increasing trade, investment and
sustainable tourism in and between the two regions. In this context, they underlined
the importance of promoting dialogue and cooperation to address common social
and economic challenges, to support long-term economic growth, to implement
targeted policy measures in support of micro, small and medium enterprises
(MSMEs) and to undertake more concerted efforts to this effect within ASEM,
including by promoting business start-up support services and financing, and
implementing continued reform of the regulatory environment. Leaders
acknowledged the role of the ASEM SMEs Eco-Innovation Centre in supporting
sustainable development of Asia and Europe through disseminating information,
sharing knowledge and best practices on eco-innovation and promoting
technological cooperation among MSMEs.

18. Leaders reaffirmed the significance of science, technology and innovation
cooperation in promoting socio-economic growth, sustainable, innovative and
inclusive development, job creation and in tackling global challenges in such areas
as poverty reduction, hunger, disability, health care, ageing, education,
environment, resilience and disaster risk reduction, energy, food, water, soil,
agriculture, forests and biotechnology as well as through implementation of
cooperative mechanisms, joint research, development and deployment of
innovative solutions. Leaders highlighted the importance of promoting research and
innovation collaboration, and recognized the value of a range of factors for
promoting this collaboration, including effective intellectual property rights. They
also acknowledged the role of the “ASEM Science and Technology Innovation
Cooperation Center” and the “ASEM Water Resources and Development Center”.

19. Leaders underlined the importance of effective protection of intellectual property
rights in fostering innovation, growth and employment as well as the need for
enhanced cooperation on IPR in all relevant areas.

20. Leaders also highlighted digital connectivity as a key element of increasing social
and economic connectivity within and between the two regions, and expressed
interest in examining ways of enhancing digital connectivity to fully realize its
potential of driving growth, creating jobs and promoting innovation. In this context,
they appreciated progress of the Trans-Eurasia Information Network (TEIN) over
the last 16 years as well as the role of the TEIN Cooperation Centre in the ROK,
reiterating their further support for the project’s implementation. Leaders stressed
the importance of security of and in the use of information and communication
technologies (ICTs). They emphasized the need to enhance cooperation among
ASEM partners to promote a peaceful, secure, open and cooperative ICT
environment on the basis of universally accepted norms, rules and principles for
responsible state behavior and to prevent potential use of ICTs for criminal and
terrorist purposes through trust and confidence-building between states, as well as
capacity-building and technology transfer.

21. Leaders underlined the importance of enhancing people-to-people connectivity
through cultural, educational, academic, tourism and youth exchanges between the
two regions. They also recognized that the ASEM-DUO Fellowship Programme,
which aims to promote education cooperation among ASEM partners, is producing
practical and tangible results. They acknowledged the important role of education,
in particular higher education, lifelong learning and vocational education and
training for human resource development. Leaders commended the role of Asia-
Europe Foundation (ASEF) in bringing together the peoples of Asia and Europe,
forging closer links between the ASEM governments and civil societies and
providing capacity-building trainings for the youth from both regions.

22. Leaders recognized the potential and importance of cooperation in the development
of creative industries to foster creativity, innovation, livelihood creation and national
or regional branding. They encouraged the strengthening of networking, people-topeople
exchange and sharing of experience and expertise among professionals
and institutions in ASEM. Leaders underlined that collaboration in creative
industries shall be supported by cultural policies which form a foundation for the
development of creative economy in an increasingly globalized world. They
encouraged strengthened use of ICT, synergy with cultural heritage, and
international collaboration on such matters as development of entrepreneurship
skills, incentives, financing, technology development and professionalization.

Cooperation on Political and Security Issues

23. Leaders, reiterating their view that terrorism constitutes a serious threat to
international peace, security, stability and development, expressed their
determination to countering terrorism and preventing violent extremism in all their
forms and manifestations in accordance with international law, including the Charter
of the United Nations and relevant Conventions and Protocols, in particular human
rights law, refugee law and international humanitarian law. They strongly
condemned the recent terrorist attacks including destruction of cultural heritage and
stressed the need to work together to counter terrorism, eliminate conditions
conducive to the growth and spread of violent extremism and radicalization in
societies leading towards violence, as well as the rising phenomenon of foreign
terrorist fighters as described in the UNSC Resolution 2178. Leaders emphasized
the need for a comprehensive approach in countering terrorism and violent
extremism, without associating them with any religion, nationality, civilization or
ethnic group. Leaders reaffirmed their resolve to combat terrorism financing as well
as abuse of Internet by terrorist groups. They also stressed the importance of
preventing chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear terrorism, and controlling
trade in and flows of conventional arms. Leaders called for strengthening the
international legal regime, including through substantive progress in the ongoing
negotiations on the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism at the
United Nations. They took note of the UN Secretary-General’s Plan of Action to
Prevent Violent Extremism.

24. Leaders condemned all forms of incitement to hatred and intolerance, including
xenophobia, religious hatred and violence. They stressed the importance of respect
and understanding for cultural and religious diversity, and of promoting tolerance,
pluralism, mutual respect, intercultural and interfaith dialogue and cooperation.
They acknowledged that the practice of moderation is vital to bridging differences
and addressing the various manifestations of extremism. In this regard, they urged
Governments to strengthen initiatives on the matter and expressed support for
efforts aimed at promoting moderation, in particular as espoused by the Global
Movement of Moderates in various formats within the ASEM framework.
Furthermore, they acknowledged the role played by the UN Alliance of Civilizations
in the promotion of interfaith dialogue.

25. Leaders exchanged views on the ways to promote and strengthen cooperation on
international and regional issues of common interest and concern including in the
Middle East, Africa, Ukraine, and recent developments on the Korean Peninsula
and human rights situation concerning the DPRK including abduction issues with a
view to facilitating the settlement of conflicts and resolving disputes in different
parts of the world by peaceful means in accordance with universally recognized
principles of international law and the UN Charter. Leaders noted the importance of
confidence building measures in contributing towards peace and stability, and took
note in this regard of relevant efforts also by the neutral countries. They reaffirmed
the principle of refraining from the threat or use of force in international relations.

26. Leaders condemned in the strongest terms the DPRK’s nuclear, other weapons of
mass destruction and ballistic missile programmes which constitute a grave
violation of all relevant UN Security Council resolutions and endanger peace and
stability in Northeast Asia and beyond. The DPRK shall refrain from further actions
which violate the relevant UN Security Council resolutions. They called for full
implementation of the UN Security Council resolution 2270 and all other relevant
resolutions as well as the 2005 Joint Statement of the Six-Party Talks. They
stressed the imperative need for the reduction of tension, creation of environment
conducive to the resumption of the Six-Party Talks through meaningful dialogue,
the DPRK’s early return to the NPT and the International Atomic Energy Agency’s
(IAEA) safeguards and achievement of denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in
a complete, verifiable and irreversible manner. They called for vigilance against
nuclear and missile related procurement by the DPRK and any other assistance to
its nuclear and missile programme.

27. Leaders also welcomed the initiatives aimed at promoting greater understanding,
confidence and cooperation among the states and other stakeholders of the region,
such as the Ulaanbaatar Dialogue on Northeast Asia Security (UBD) of Mongolia
and the Northeast Asia Peace Cooperation Initiative (NAPCI) of the Republic of

28. Leaders expressed their strong interest in seeing Afghanistan and its people
develop and prosper peacefully and welcomed all efforts undertaken by the
international community to support the Government of Afghanistan to this end.
They welcomed the progress that has been achieved over the years in a number of
areas. In this context, they welcomed the Brussels Conference on Afghanistan in
October 2016 following the Tokyo Conference in 2012 as an opportunity for the
international community to signal sustained political and financial support to Afghan
peace, state-building and development and for Afghanistan to reconfirm its
commitments towards continued reforms and progress. Leaders were concerned by
the continuing threat to security and stability in Afghanistan, and called for early
restoration of peace in Afghanistan. They strongly supported international efforts,
including by the Quadrilateral Coordination Group, aimed at facilitating an Afghanled
and Afghan-owned peace process. They also appreciated the progress
achieved at the 5th Heart of Asia/Istanbul Process Ministerial Meeting held in
Islamabad, Pakistan, last year and welcomed the 6th Ministerial Meeting to be held
in India later this year.

29. Leaders recalled the tragedy of the downing of flight MH17, which occurred on 17
July 2014, and renewed their sympathy to all those who have lost their loved ones.
Such acts of violence threaten the safety of civil aviation. Those responsible for the
downing of MH17 must be held accountable and brought to justice, in accordance
with the United Nations Security Council resolution 2166 (2014).

30. Leaders highlighted the key role of the United Nations in maintaining international
peace and security, promoting inclusive and sustainable development, protecting
human rights and fundamental freedoms and effectively addressing current and
emerging global challenges. Reiterating the importance of building a more effective
multilateral system based on international law, they pledged to continue to uphold
the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and their universality, promoting
disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass
destruction through, inter-alia, the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones on
the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the states concerned in
accordance with the 1999 UNDC Guidelines. They called for the implementation of
the UN Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons. Leaders also
reaffirmed the need for a comprehensive reform of the UN including its main bodies
guided by the principles of democracy, transparency and accountability.

31. Leaders welcomed the establishment of the ASEAN Community in 2015 as a
significant step towards greater regional and inter-regional integration. They
reiterated their support for the ASEAN Community Vision 2025 and the centrality of
ASEAN in the evolving regional architecture in the Asia-Pacific and expressed their
appreciation of ASEAN’s role in promoting dialogue and building confidence and
cooperation for peace, security, stability and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region
and beyond. They commended ASEAN’s endeavors in expanding its relations with
partners and welcomed the interest of the European ASEM partners in furthering
engagement with the region through all relevant ASEAN led-processes.

32. Leaders reaffirmed their commitment to ensure peace, stability and prosperity and
to promote maritime security, safety and cooperation, freedom of navigation and
overflight and unimpeded commerce and to combat piracy and armed robbery at
sea in full compliance with the principles of international law. Leaders agreed on the
critical importance of confidence building measures, of refraining from the use or
threat of force, and of disputes being resolved in accordance with principles of
international law, the UN Charter and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

33. Leaders devoted particular attention to the unprecedented humanitarian
emergencies, migration and refugee challenge, smuggling and trafficking in
persons occurring in Asia and Europe. They highlighted the need for
comprehensive regional and international responses, including those related to
addressing the root causes of irregular migration and forced displacement and to
providing support to people in need of protection, including access to education,
livelihood and services, support for the most vulnerable displaced and host
communities and raising awareness in at-risk communities consistent with relevant
international standards and in accordance with domestic laws, regulations and
policies. They underlined the responsibility of the countries of origin, transit and
destination to cooperate to promote safe and orderly movement of persons; to
ensure return and facilitate reintegration; to respect international law including
international humanitarian law and international refugee law. They further noted the
upcoming 9th Global Forum on Migration and Development in Dhaka in December
2016, which will provide an excellent opportunity in forging meaningful cooperation
in this particular field.

34. Leaders reaffirmed their commitment to promote and protect human rights in
accordance with the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and,
where applicable, international human rights treaties and instruments, and
strengthen collaboration to advance human rights through the UN Human Rights
Council, including the Universal Periodic Review. They reaffirmed their willingness
to promote further cooperation in ASEM in the field of human rights, including
through sharing experience and best practices. Leaders emphasized the important
role of governments, international and national human rights institutions and
regional organizations in promoting and protecting human rights and highlighted
the need for strengthening cooperation in the field of gender equality and
empowerment of women, and disabled persons. They further emphasized that
persons in vulnerable situations – not least women, children, the elderly and
individuals with disabilities – need particular attention in order to ensure their full
enjoyment of all human rights. Leaders emphasized that great attention should be
paid to civil and political rights as well as economic, social and cultural rights, and
the right to development.

35. Leaders confirmed their strong adherence to upholding democratic principles and
good governance, with special focus on accountability, fight against corruption, antimoney
laundering and the denial of safe haven. They also underlined the need for
strengthening cooperation between governments, including anti-corruption
authorities, as well as parliaments and the judiciary.

36. Leaders recognized the importance of full and equal participation of women at all
levels of leadership and decision-making and committed to address the persistent
barriers that impede full and equal political and economic participation by women
and girls.

Rethinking Working Methods

37. Leaders agreed that efforts should be continued to explore possibilities for
harmonizing the informal nature and efficiency of ASEM through further
improvement of working methods and coordination within ASEM, the process for
which was initiated at the ASEM Foreign Ministers’ Meeting in New Delhi in
November 2013. They underlined the need to ensure more effective institutional
memory, enhanced connectivity, tangible cooperation projects, further involvement
of relevant stakeholders and other ways to strengthen Asia-Europe dialogue and
cooperation. They also tasked the Senior Officials to further explore ways to
develop effective ways of communication within ASEM to respond to the
requirements of ASEM’s third decade and new developments made in the process.

38. Leaders commended the work of ASEF in complementing the government-led
ASEM process with its programmes and projects in such areas as culture,
economy, education, governance, public health and sustainable development, as
well as specific activities in support of ASEM Summits and Ministerial Meetings
(see Annex 3). They expressed support for strengthening the role of ASEF in
enhancing the visibility of ASEM and aligning its activities with the ASEM priorities.

39. Leaders underlined the need to ensure, where appropriate, wider engagement of
the civil society and various stakeholders, inter alia, business, labor partners,
scholars and think-tanks, women’s organizations, students and youth as well as
journalists, in the ASEM process, and to enhance ASEM visibility and its continued
relevance for the people. They expressed support for mainstreaming the input of
various stakeholders into the official ASEM process by providing appropriate
consultation channels and, where possible, directly involving relevant stakeholders
into ASEM meetings.

40. Leaders also underscored the importance of reviving regular meetings of Economic
Ministers (EMM) that were not held for the last 13 years. In this connection, they
welcomed the offer by the Republic of Korea to host the Economic Ministers
Meeting in 2017 and instructed the Senior Officials’ Meeting on Trade and
Investment which is planned to be held in Mongolia later this year to make a
decision on this matter.

41. Leaders noted the outcome and recommendations of the 9th Asia-Europe
Parliamentary Meeting (ASEP9), 12th Meeting of ASEM Finance Ministers (ASEM
FinMM12), 11th Asia-Europe People’s Forum (AEPF11) and 15th Asia-Europe
Business Forum (AEBF15), all held in Ulaanbaatar in the run-up to the ASEM
Summit as a valuable input to ASEM activities. They also expressed their
appreciation for holding in Ulaanbaatar the 7th Model ASEM as one of ASEF’s
flagship youth projects and agreed to continue this event on a regular basis in
conjunction with the ASEM summits.

42. Leaders welcomed the creation by ASEM of the 20th tangible area of cooperation
pertaining to youth and took note of various initiatives being organized by ASEM
partners in 2016-2018 in agreed priority areas of cooperation (see Annex 1 and
Annex 2) that would contribute to increased engagement of people in ASEM
activities and foster closer relations and better understanding between the two
regions. Underlining the importance of strengthening tangible cooperation, Leaders
welcomed recommendations to link various initiatives, projects, and cross-cutting
and inter-related Tangible Cooperation Areas to maximize outcomes.

43. Leaders agreed that the ASEM’s 20th Anniversary celebration activities increase
public awareness of ASEM in individual countries. Leaders endorsed the
suggestions contained in the ASEM Press and Public Awareness Strategy, aimed
at further raising the visibility of ASEM. They encouraged all ASEM partners to
contribute to the efforts to boost ASEM’s visibility. In this connection, Leaders
spoke out in favor of celebrating annually the ASEM Day and welcomed Mongolia’s
initiative to explore, together with interested partners and ASEF, how to improve
cooperation and coordination with and among ASEM stakeholders.

44. Leaders welcomed the invitation of Myanmar to host the 13th ASEM Foreign
Ministers’ Meeting (ASEM FMM13) in the second half of 2017 in Nay Pyi Taw.

45. Leaders thanked the Chair and Host for the successful outcome of the 11th ASEM
Summit in Ulaanbaatar and for the warm hospitality accorded to all its participants.
Leaders look forward to the 12th ASEM Summit to be held in Brussels, Belgium,
chaired by the European Union, in 2018.