The protest movement of American soldiers against the occupation of Iraq has possibly made a historical step with the decision of a military judge this past May 11 to not consider Pablo Walls a deserter; he was only sentenced to difficult labor on base for three months and stripped from his rank. On December 6, 2004, Pablo Walls was not present to board the “USS Bonhomme Richard” transporting US Army soldiers to Iraq. A few days later, he turned himself in to the authorities and requested the status of conscientious objector. Risking a year of imprisonment for desertion, he decided to declare himself innocent, calling the war underway illegal according to his “duty of moral conscience” and despite his orders - an imperative previously invoked in the history of the military tribunals. Only on that occasion, it was to used charge German soldiers who had participated in massacres during the Second World War.