Begun by secret society Yi Ho Tuan (“the society of the fair and the coordinated fists”), the so called “boxer’” rebellion was aimed at giving the imperial throne back to a Chinese emperor and expelling the westerners. Organized by Empress Tseu Hi, the anti-colonialist rebellion was uncommonly violent. The representations of other countries in Beijing were attacked and Chinese Christians and priests were massacred. The counteroffensive of General Von Waldersee’s international expeditionary force was even more violent. French writer Pierre Loti reflected the topic in his novel Les Derniers jours de Pékin. Dozens of millions of Chinese people died during these turbulent years. The foreign troops settled in China for a while and the country was forced to pay strong compensations.