France kings’war was getting on to a hundred years. They represented a centralizing system, and on the other hand the dukes of Burgundy and the kings of England supported a feudal autonomy. Joan of Arc, who, in the name of God, defended king Charles VII of France, was captured by the followers of the Duchy of Burgundy and sold to the English who, in turn, gave her to the Church. In 1431, Joan was condemned for heresy and burned at the stake. However, in the 19th Century, the historian and promoter of the 3rd Republic Jules Michelet gave the legend of Joan of Arc another interpretation turning it into a secular example: as a daughter of the people, she defended her homeland against foreign invaders and the Catholic Church. Troubled by the impetus of that anticlerical myth, Monsignor Dupanloup spared no efforts to recover the symbol. He presented Joan of Arc as an obedient virgin, and the judges who sentenced her as a group of Parisian university students in disagreement with Rome. Eventually, as a result of an understanding between the Republic and Rome, Pope Benedict XV canonized Joan of Arc in 1920.