The theory of "free trade", appearing in the 18th century, was initially formulated to prevent the Dutch from closing their colonial empire to English commerce. It served as the political rationale for British colonial expansion, imposing an international division of labor that revealed itself to be much more effective for pillaging resources than the colonial system itself.
In 1941, the Anglo-Saxons devised, as an aim of the war, a shift from the prevailing mode of colonial exploitation to that of unequal exchange in the aftermath of victory over Nazi tyranny. The Atlantic Charter promoted decolonization, free trade and freedom of the seas. This model was formalized in 1947 with the GATT Agreements. This was reinforced during the Reagan-Thatcher era by a vast movement of privatization and deregulation.
In 1991, President Bush announced his vision of a new world order: globalization. The objective was to fill and profit from the void created by the disappearance of the USSR and extend Anglo-Saxon domination in a manner that closely twinned economic and military expansion.
The new model encompassed not only the free trade of goods but also of services and capital, to be regulated by an arbitrating tribunal that would constrain the sovereignty of individual states, which is today embodied in the World Trade Organization.
In the 21st century, this on-going process has led to the dematerialization of the world economy. Favoring the expansion of military-related industries while manufacturers of domestic consumer goods shut down, the Anglo-Saxons created an economy based on "financial products’ (meaning speculation) and the profits derived from "intellectual property" (so called "fair use"). They extended their control over the free trade of goods and services in air space using the "war on terror" as a pretext and over the seas under cover of a "war on piracy". In the meantime, however, the exorbitant costs of the neocolonial occupation of Iraq in 2003 nearly brought about the complete financial collapse of the empire.
At this point, President Obama and Prime Minister Brown attempted to save the system by eliminating foreign financial positions thus compelling capital to migrate in the direction of an Anglo-Saxon fiscal paradise. Additionally, Western governments have in a concerted way placed their means of public finance entirely in the hands of a small number of private banks. As a result, these are now in a position not only to avert collapse but also to acquire firms as they spiral into failure, accelerating the already gigantic concentration of riches.
1. We, the Leaders of the G20, met in Osaka, Japan on 28-29 June 2019 to make united efforts to address major global economic challenges. We will work together to foster global economic growth, while harnessing the power of technological innovation, in particular digitalization, and its application for the benefit of all.
2. Building on work done by previous presidencies, we will strive to create a virtuous cycle of growth by addressing inequalities and realize a society where (...)
Sophie Shevardnadze (retranslated): Hello, everyone,
I am Sophie Shevardnadze. I am very glad to be able to moderate today’s plenary session, because the St Petersburg Forum is a unique platform that brings together businessmen, officials and leaders whose paths would never otherwise have crossed, anywhere in the world. We meet each year to figure out how to move the world forward.
I had the opportunity to talk with our speakers shortly before the start. I think they are committed to (...)
Mr Chairman, Mr Xi Jinping, colleagues,
It is obvious that ensuring stable and sustained economic growth and strengthening comprehensive links between countries and integration associations on the Eurasian subcontinent requires an advanced transport, energy and telecommunications infrastructure, as President Xi Jinping and Ms Lagarde have just said.
I should note that Russia is currently implementing comprehensive national projects, which cover major sectors crucial for dynamic economic (...)
The European Union informed the United States government that it will resort to the World Trade Organization (WTO) if the US tightens its economic blockade against Cuba by enforcing chapter III of the Helms-Burton law.
The United States has announced that it will enforce Title III of the Helms-Burton Act (Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (Freedom) Act of 1996), thereby authorizing so-called "Cuban-Americans" to pursue legal claims for properties which were confiscated after the (...)
PRESIDENT TRUMP: Thank you very much. It’s a great honor to be with the Vice Premier of China, a highly respected man all over the world. We’ve had tremendous discussions. We’re getting very close to making a deal. That doesn’t mean a deal is made, because it’s not, but we’re certainly getting a lot closer. And I would think with — oh, within the next four weeks or maybe less, maybe more — whatever it takes — something very monumental could be announced.
We very much appreciate the letter (...)
Thank you Matthew for that introduction and thank you to Ørsted for hosting us today.
Your work in offshore wind does not just provide skilled jobs here in Grimsby, it makes a direct contribution to the UK’s efforts to reduce our carbon emissions and protect our environment.
Achieving the economic benefits of the global shift to sustainable green growth is one of the four Grand Challenges in our Modern Industrial Strategy.
The UK is the world-leader in oﬀshore wind, and yesterday we (...)
The virtual currency, Bitcoin, offers you the assurance that noone will know about your transaction. That is Bitcoin’s key sales pitch.
But the Israeli company Whitestream now claims to have collected the identity of everyone involved in Bitcoin transactions with Hamas (read: with the Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood).
Of course this information has already been passed on to the Israeli Security Services, which in turn have handed it over to their partners in the (...)
It appeared that the future of Indian e commerce was focused on competition between two US operators, Amazon and Walmart. In May 2018 Amazon bought the Indian company which had the strongest roots on the market. This target company was Flipkart, and its purchase price was 16 billion dollars. In September, Walmart invested more than 5 billion dollars to buy More, one of India’s main supermarket chains.
With 4 600 shops and more than 2 million employees, Walmart is a distribution giant in (...)
Beijing continues unceasingly to develop its « Silk Road » project. China’s vice-President, Wang Qishan, has undertaken a tour of the Near East which took him to Israël for four days. According to the agreements which have already been signed, within two years China will control the major part of Israël’s agro-food industry, its high technology and its international exchanges. A free trade agreement should follow, and the geopolitics of the whole region will be turned upside down.
China is the world’s biggest developing country and the United States is the biggest developed country. Trade and economic relations between China and the US are of great significance for the two countries as well as for the stability and development of the world economy.
Since the establishment of diplomatic relations, bilateral trade and economic ties between China and the US have developed steadily. A close partnership has been forged under which interests of the two countries (...)
The sovereign state is indispensable – especially in a globalised economy, by Marianne Wüthrich / Safeguarding and expanding rights – securing prosperity / US domestic policy sabotages détente with Russiam by Hannes Hofbauer / Words from Helsinki that the world has been waiting for, by Willy Wimmer / The West’s fury and bitterness about Russia’s successes; Following on from the modest movement towards détente achieved at the Putin-Trump meeting, what next?, by Brian Cloughley / French major enterprises have to abandon their commercial activities in Iran, by Hayat Gazzane / Is “Antifa” the German mainstream? This is no way for the country to come to rest, by Karl Müller / Driving bans for diesel? A plea for more objectivity, by Rainer Schopf / Why I like to be a Swiss, by Wolfgang van Biezen / The value of language teaching for the preservation of the ancient languages, by Thibault Mercuzot, Delphine le Corfec and Patrick (...)
President Trump won the election on his promise to overthrow financial capitalism and restore productive capitalism. From this standpoint, he considers that war damages owed to Syria should not be paid by the United States, but by transnational corporations. Is this revolution in international relations desirable or even possible?
Mr. Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, Mr. Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, and Mr. Shinzo Abe, Prime Minister of Japan, met in Tokyo today for the 25th Summit between the European Union (EU) and Japan and issued the following statement.
We, the leaders of the EU and Japan, reaffirm the strength of our Strategic Partnership and our resolve to work together for peace, prosperity and the rules-based international order. We remain united by our common (...)
H.E. Li Keqiang, Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China, H.E. Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, and H.E. Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, met in Beijing on 16 July 2018 for the 20th EU-China Summit. Premier Li and President Juncker jointly attended the EU-China Business Roundtable.
1. On the occasion of this 20th EU-China Summit, the two sides celebrated the 15th anniversary of the EU-China Comprehensive Strategic Partnership. (...)
The Raiffeisenbanks in Switzerland and the principle of cooperation, by René Roca / Summit of Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin / “The purpose of Raiffeisen is the common self-help” Felix Walker calls for the bank to return to its cooperative roots, by Georg Koch / What can Germany hope for?, by Karl Müller / Europeans should not follow the American sanctions against Iran!, by Roland Hureaux / Angela Merkel definitely rejects Emmanuel Macron’s United States of Europe, by Alain Morau / The front against Russia is caving in, by Eberhard Hamer / “Working for human rights takes patience, perseverance and passion”, Interview with Alfred de Zayas / Alfred de Zayas’ 23 principles of international order / More than a well-founded plea against German war policy. Willy Wimmer’s new book „Germany in Upheaval“, by Johannes Irsiegler / EU-Europe faces a self-inflicted shambles, by Willy Wimmer / Human trafficking and sexual slavery along the Danube, by Barbara Hug / The need for ethical and moral (...)
SEC. 1. SHORT TITLE.
This Act may be cited as the "United States Fair and Reciprocal Tariff Act".
SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
Congress finds the following:
(l) The United States maintains an open market for goods, with relatively low tariffs, and has long encouraged trading partners, both bilaterally and in multilateral fora, to liberalize their markets;
(2) The United States is the world’s largest importer of goods;
(3) Trading partners of the United States in many instances impose (...)
At the direction of President Donald J. Trump and President Xi Jinping, on May 17 and 18, 2018, the United States and China engaged in constructive consultations regarding trade in Washington, D.C. The United States delegation included Secretary of the Treasury Steven T. Mnuchin, Secretary of Commerce Wilbur L. Ross, and United States Trade Representative Robert E. Lighthizer. The Chinese delegation was led by State Council Vice Premier Liu He, Special Envoy of President Xi.
There was a (...)
US President, Donald Trump, has issued the following edict to all countries and private businesses: you have between 90 to 180 days, depending on the sector you’re in, to wrap up all your business with Iran.
Sanctions on metal, currency, debt and every type of automotive vehicle, will apply from 7 August.
Sanctions relating to the banking and oil sector will apply from 5 November.
In the European Union, some are groaning and requesting exemptions, at least to allow contracts that have (...)
Meeting with teachers, on the event of Teachers’ week, this morning (Wednesday), Ayatollah Khamenei stated: “Last night, you heard the US president make some shallow and lewd remarks. There were several lies within his speech. He threatened the Iranian government and people. I answer him, as a representative of the Iranian population: “Donald Trump, you cannot lift one finger against us.”
You know that the nuclear issue was just an excuse!” He further reminded his audience: “When the nuclear (...)
The European Union (EU) deeply regrets the announcement by US President Trump to withdraw from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).
The JCPOA, unanimously endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 2231, is a key element of the global nuclear non-proliferation architecture and is crucial for the security of the region.
As long as Iran continues to implement its nuclear related commitments, as it has been doing so far and has been confirmed by the International Atomic Energy (...)
We are deeply disappointed by US President Donald Trump’s decision to unilaterally give up commitments to implement the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on Iran’s nuclear programme (JCPOA) and to reinstate the US sanctions on Iran.
The JCPOA is a key multilateral agreement approved by the 2015 UNSC Resolution 2231. The Action Plan does not belong to the United States alone but is a domain of the entire international community, which has repeatedly reaffirmed its interest in the (...)
Speaking in a televised address to the people on the JCPOA, President Hassan Rouhani said: “As verified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Iran has lived up to all its commitments and tonight, it was revealed who the unfaithful is”.
He continued: “Today, we saw what we were reiterating from 40 years ago, and that is Iran is a country that lives up to its commitments and the United States is a country that has never done so”.
“In the past 40 years or even before that, history (...)
It is with regret and concern that we, the Leaders of France, Germany and the United Kingdom take note of President Trump’s decision to withdraw the United States of America from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.
Together, we emphasise our continuing commitment to the JCPoA. This agreement remains important for our shared security. We recall that the JCPoA was unanimously endorsed by the UN Security Council in resolution 2231. This resolution remains the binding international legal (...)
MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY OF STATE
THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY
THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
THE ATTORNEY GENERAL
THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY
THE SECRETARY OF HOMELAND SECURITY
THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT AND CHIEF OF STAFF
THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE
THE UNITED STATES PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE TO THE UNITED NATIONS
THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE
THE DIRECTOR OF THE CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
THE ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS
My fellow Americans: Today, I want to update the world on our efforts to prevent Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapon.
The Iranian regime is the leading state sponsor of terror. It exports dangerous missiles, fuels conflicts across the Middle East, and supports terrorist proxies and militias such as Hezbollah, Hamas, the Taliban, and al Qaeda.
Over the years, Iran and its proxies have bombed American embassies and military installations, murdered hundreds of American servicemembers, and (...)
On April 6, the number of attempts to pressure Russia through sanctions topped fifty. Despite the failure of previous rounds of sanctions to achieve anything, Washington continues to threaten Russians with visa denials and to scare Russian business by freezing property and financial assets, forgetting that the seizure of private property and other people’s money constitutes theft.
Having failed to achieve the desired effect from the previous sanctions, Washington politicians are pursuing (...)
The U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), in consultation with the Department of State, today designated seven Russian oligarchs and 12 companies they own or control, 17 senior Russian government officials, and a state-owned Russian weapons trading company and its subsidiary, a Russian bank.
“The Russian government operates for the disproportionate benefit of oligarchs and government elites,” said Treasury Secretary Steven T. Mnuchin. “The Russian (...)
The next crash has been planned. Who wants to profit … and who should pay the bill, by Professor Dr Eberhard Hamer / OSCE report largely confirms correct election process. Vladimir Putin elected with 76 per cent of the votes / Washington wrecks cyber security talks, by Arkady Savitsky / NATO and EU are escalating the “Bogeyman Russia”, by Karl Müller / Preservation of Swiss agriculture – neither nostalgic nor unworldly, but a requirement of time, by Marianne Wüthrich / “I am a farmer, not a businessman!”, Interview with Benoît Biteau / Dementia – a disease difficult to comprehend, by Rita Brügger / A new chapter of the cabbage story. Sauerkraut revival thanks to an innovative idea, by Heini Hofmann / “Painting without ceremony” Gabriele Münter art exhibition in Munich, by Gisela Schlatterbeck-Kersten and Ingo (...)
The United States has formed a new Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD), which is known as the “Quads”. This is an anti-Chinese group composed since 2007 of Japan, Australia and India. Following a change in government, Australia had left the group, making Washington’s strategy a failure, returned to it in 2010.
The Trump Administration is preparing a project to steal China’s thunder. The initiative the Chinese have in mind is to create new communication routes along the model of the former (...)
“The control mechanisms in the current financial system have become so overwhelming”. Quadragesimo Anno more topical than ever, by Heinrich Wohlmeyer / It’s true: NATO with its eastward expansion has violated all pledges made. Russia’s deepest fears have been realized, by Eric S. Margolis / The “post-Mobutist” Congo: The USA is betting on Rwanda. Congo – kleptocracy with no end in sight? (part 4), by Peter Küpfer / No country can live with a political lie for good, by Karl Müller / Reasoning against an “ice age” in East-West relations. Gabriele Krone-Schmalz outlines solutions, by Carola and Johannes Irsiegler / “To deny students the important literary texts means depriving them of their identity”, Interview by Alexandre Devecchio / Oscar Bernhard, the founder of mountain rescue. Doctor, chamois hunter, mountain guide and pioneer of accident medicine, by Heini (...)
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