There have been many debates on the policy which should be implemented to “manage China’s growth.” Such an expression shows the vision of a China which evolves progressively and against whom a reaction must be necessary if it becomes a threat as time passes by. Besides, we’ve been told that if China is treated too quickly as an enemy, then it would act as such. The possibility of managing China’s spectacular growth is a relief but the history of the powers does not favor such hypothesis.
With the exception of the managing of the American growth by the British Empire, the birth of a new power has never been welcomed by the established powers. The United States’ case was an exception for, undoubtedly, British and Americans shared the same values. Germany and Japan in the XX century are much less reassuring historical examples. However, we have no evidences to believe we are more intelligent that the leaders of the past. After all, we also try to ease the new powers by trading with them.
Today, nothing evidences China wants to integrate itself into the “international system” if this not convenient for it. We must understand the nature of China’s advent will be caused by the Chinese and not by us. Soon, China will challenge the United States and its allies in Asia. Therefore, it is necessary to have a policy to slow down China’s development. Ant this means, Beijing must be considered an enemy.

Washington Post (United States)

" The Illusion of ’Managing’ China ", by Robert Kagan, Washington Post, May 15, 2005.