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Based on the continuous historic bilateral relations between Syria and Russia, and the long-standing friendship, mutual respect, rich experience that accumulated as a result of fruitful, multi-sided cooperation between peoples of the two countries,

Taking into consideration the standing international treaties between the two sides, including the Joint Declaration on deepening relations of friendship and cooperation signed on January 25, 2005, recognizing their role in achieving just and comprehensive peace in the region and the world, and to help reach a multi-lateral world order that is more just, democratic and adherent to the international law, and contribute to solidifying the pivotal role of the United Nations in international relations,

Based on their recognition of the principal responsibility of the UN Security Council regarding preserving international peace and security, agreeing that it is necessary to enhance and overhaul the United Nations and the Security Council in concord with the current economic and political situations,

Believing that principles like the unconditioned supremacy of the international law must form a basis for a multi-polar world order through consolidating the coordinative pivotal role of the United Nations,

Stemming from their efforts to establish just and comprehensive peace in the Middle East on the basis of the relevant international legitimacy resolutions, Madrid term of reference including the land-for-peace principle, and stressing their solid determination to further deepen friendship and cooperation that harmonize with the two countries’ interests and help establish peace and security in the Middle East and the world,

Based on the two sides endeavor to move the political dialogue forward and cooperate within the framework of the United Nations and its affiliated bodies on main world issues, in relation to stopping regional conflicts and finding peaceful settlements to them, halting the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and confronting organized crimes, including the illegal drug trafficking, money laundering and the deterioration of environment,

The two sides declare the following:

- 1. The two sides are keen to exchange regular visits between Presidents of the two countries to coordinate bilateral, regional and international cooperation with the participation of both countries’ ministers concerned.

- 2. The two sides work to outline mechanisms on issues of cooperation between the governmental ministries and institutions concerned in both countries.

- 3. Appreciating the positive level of the standing coordination between both countries’ Foreign Ministries, the two sides continue holding regular talks and consultations between their Foreign Ministers at least once a year according to the Minutes of Consultation between the two Foreign Ministries signed in Moscow on April 28 1990.

In the framework of developing the standing experience, the two sides form a joint committee for holding regular political consultations between senior specialized officials for regular and practical coordination of the stances and steps in the domain of foreign policy and the bilateral relations.

In the framework of the regular consultations held in coordination between both countries’ Ministries of Foreign Affairs, the two sides give the required attention to the full spectrum of the international and regional agenda of mutual concern.

- 4. Therefore, In the framework of the political consultations, the two sides give top priority to finding a solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict based on Israel’s withdrawal from all the occupied Syrian Golan and the occupied Arab territories till the June 4th 1967 line, the establishment of a Palestinian viable, independent state and solving the issue of the Palestinian refugees according to the UN Security Council and the General Assembly’s relevant resolutions.

The two sides also express their deep concern over the dangerous tension in the Middle East due to the ongoing Israeli occupation in the first place, and they condemn Israel’s settlement policy and any unilateral actions in the occupied Arab territories, including East Jerusalem.

The two sides call for the resumption of the peace process to achieve a just and comprehensive peace in the region in line with the international legitimacy resolutions, including Madrid term of reference and the land-for-peace principle. They also call for solving other Mideast crises.

- 5. The two sides continue coordination and cooperation to develop dialogue among civilizations in order to further consolidate understanding and confidence among different cultures. They also contribute to the efforts exerted in this regard.

- 6. The two sides push forward the cooperation between economic ministries and bodies and both countries’ businessmen through holding sessions of the joint Syrian-Russian Committee for Trade, Economic, Scientific and Technical Cooperation in addition to holding the Syrian-Russian Businessmen Council annually in Syria or Russia alternately.

- 7. The two sides encourage enhancing bilateral investment cooperation.

- 8. Both sides are keen on increasing interest in infrastructure projects, particularly in the domain of oil, gas, hydrocarbons transport and increasing each country’s capacity in the electric energy in addition to further developing railway and air transport, communication technologies, tourism, environment protection and irrigation and others of common interest.

- 9. Both sides encourage conducting joint scientific researches and cooperate in the field of technology, particularly high tech and use of space for peaceful purposes.

- 10. Both sides boost military cooperation and traditional military technical cooperation, taking into consideration their mutual interests and international obligations.

- 11. The two sides cooperate to consolidate international stability and security, and the prevention of the spread of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery as well as preventing their dissemination in the space.

In this framework, both sides agree that the current challenges to the international security, including those challenges related to the proliferation of the nuclear materials among unofficial bodies, should be removed based on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

The two sides call for the universality of the NPT, and consider it is necessary that Israel join the NPT as a non-nuclear state and placing its nuclear facilities under the comprehensive safeguard systems of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Both sides coordinate efforts to turn the Middle East region into a zone free of weapons of mass destruction and means of delivering them.

Russia and Syria recognize Iran’s right to develop nuclear energy for peaceful proposes acceding to the NPT provisions. Both sides underline commitment to reach a peaceful and diplomatic resolution regarding Iran’s nuclear program, and support the efforts exerted to find a negotiated solution.

- 12. Both sides keep supporting work on the bilateral and multilateral levels to fight all forms of terrorism in accordance with the provisions of international law and the UN Charter and the relevant UN Security Council resolutions. Both sides work on fighting the international organized crimes and the illegal drug trafficking and mentally harmful materials and all their ingredients. Both sides develop communication and means of dealing with the bodies concerned.

- 13. Both sides continue encouraging wide-ranging contacts in the fields of science and education through exchanging scholarships in the institutions of higher education and higher studies via activating direct contacts between the universities and scientific institutions. They also work on teaching Arabic and Russian in each country.

- 14. Both sides support the persistent cooperation in the domain of tourism and activate cultural and human communication through mutual contacts between social, sports establishments and youth organizations.